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Flashcards in Breeding and Genetics Deck (38)
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1

generation of gametes for sexual reproduction through meiotic division

gametogenesis

2

containing only one set of chromosomes, gametes are these

haploid cell

3

When two gametes (haploid cells) fuse together

Diploid

4

Animals inherit one set from father and one set from mother

chromosomes

5

heterozygous

Qq (having different alleles on chromosomes)

6

homozygous

QQ, qq (having the same alleles on parental chromosomes)

7

controlled by one, or very few genes and are much easier to predict

qualitative traits (simply inherited traits)

8

controlled by many loci

polygenic traits

9

a continuum stating herd distribution and likelihood of a trait

Normal (Bell) Curve

10

the shape of the normal curve is determined by a measure of the amount of variation in the population

phenotypic standard deviation

11

phenotypic mean (herd average) is located at the very center of the

x-axis

12

frequency of the phenotype occurs on the

y-axis

13

the way alleles interact with each other (dominance, recessive)

gene action

14

dominant allele completely masks the effects of the recessive allele; in this case the phenotype is identical to that of the dominant

complete dominance

15

the phenotype of the offspring is somewhere in the middle, more closely resembling the dominant

partial dominance

16

phenotype of the heterozygote is outside the range of possible phenotypes exhibited by the two parents (more closely related to dominant allele)

over-dominance

17

no dominance whatsoever

co-dominance gene action

18

phenotype is exactly intermediate to the two homozygotes (no dominant allele)

additive gene action

19

chromosomes that determine the sex of the individual

allosomes

20

pattern of inheritance for sex-related (female/male) genes is referred to as

sex-linked inheritance

21

traits in which phenotypic expression is limited to one sex

sex-limited traits

22

phenotypic expression differs among males and females even if the genotype is the same

sex-influenced traits

23

different loci are also interacting with each other

epistasis

24

population average (u) + genetic effects (G) + environmental effects (E) =

Phenotype (P)

25

a measure that indicates what proportion of the observed phenotypes is due to genetics

heritability

26

growth and stature rates (average daily gain and body weight)

traits with high heritability

27

EBV

expected breeding value

28

EPD

expected progeny differential

29

ETA

estimated transmitting ability

30

descendants or offspring

progeny