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Flashcards in Dairy Industry Deck (22)
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1

Average gallons per cow per day

8 gallons (8.6 pounds/gallon = 70 lbs/day)

2

Leading country in milk production

India (self-sufficient)
1.5 cows/farm and most are milked by hand

3

Second leading country in milk production

United States (high technology)

4

Increased economic stability leads to increased consumption of fluid milk and other dairy products.

True

5

U.S. annual milk production

21 billion gallons of milk

6

Milk production per cow

22,500 pounds annually/cow

7

Milk production has more than doubled in the last 50 years even though we are operating with 50% fewer cows. What reasons can we accredit this to?

True.
1 Improved Genetics
2 Increased Reproduction
3 Health and management

8

Dairy farm numbers decreased from _________ to _________.

650,000 to 60,000

9

Average herd size increased five-fold from ___ to ___.

20 to 100 cows

10

The dairy industry is moving in which direction?

West of the Mississippi River

11

How long are calves held in individual housing?

6-8 weeks and then are weaned

12

When will heifers be bred?

15 months of age

13

What hormone is exhibited every 21 days, making it possible to breed females?

Estrus

14

Reasons for nearly 100% AI in the dairy industry:

1. Poor disposition of dairy bulls
2. Easy management and observation of heat characteristics

15

Steps to ensure health and safety while milking:

1. After the cows are in the parlor, the udder is washed and each teat is dipped in an antibacterial solution to destroy any bacteria that may be near the teat canal.

2. Farmers typically wait 30 seconds for the hormone, oxytocin, which was released in response to cleaning the udder, to release milk.

3. The farmer strips (hand milks) each teat a few times, which further stimulates the udder, and also checks for mastitis in the expelled milk.

4. Another 30–60 seconds is allowed to elapse.

5. The milking unit is placed on the teats.

6. The milking unit automatically detaches when all four quarters are empty. The farmer will double check each quarter to ensure that they are milked out and healthy.

16

How long after calving are cows rebred?

3 months

17

When are nutritional needs the highest?

early lactation

18

When does milk production peak?

4th - 7th week

19

When a cow loses weight during peak lactation due to such high energy production that it cannot be replaced in the diet fast enough.

Negative Energy Balance

20

When a cow decreases milk production and is able to increase body weight.

Positive Energy Balance

21

Typical length of lactation

305 days

22

Typical length of dry period

60 days