Flashcards in Dairy Industry Deck (22)
Average gallons per cow per day
8 gallons (8.6 pounds/gallon = 70 lbs/day)
Leading country in milk production
1.5 cows/farm and most are milked by hand
Second leading country in milk production
United States (high technology)
Increased economic stability leads to increased consumption of fluid milk and other dairy products.
U.S. annual milk production
21 billion gallons of milk
Milk production per cow
22,500 pounds annually/cow
Milk production has more than doubled in the last 50 years even though we are operating with 50% fewer cows. What reasons can we accredit this to?
1 Improved Genetics
2 Increased Reproduction
3 Health and management
Dairy farm numbers decreased from _________ to _________.
650,000 to 60,000
Average herd size increased five-fold from ___ to ___.
20 to 100 cows
The dairy industry is moving in which direction?
West of the Mississippi River
How long are calves held in individual housing?
6-8 weeks and then are weaned
When will heifers be bred?
15 months of age
What hormone is exhibited every 21 days, making it possible to breed females?
Reasons for nearly 100% AI in the dairy industry:
1. Poor disposition of dairy bulls
2. Easy management and observation of heat characteristics
Steps to ensure health and safety while milking:
1. After the cows are in the parlor, the udder is washed and each teat is dipped in an antibacterial solution to destroy any bacteria that may be near the teat canal.
2. Farmers typically wait 30 seconds for the hormone, oxytocin, which was released in response to cleaning the udder, to release milk.
3. The farmer strips (hand milks) each teat a few times, which further stimulates the udder, and also checks for mastitis in the expelled milk.
4. Another 30–60 seconds is allowed to elapse.
5. The milking unit is placed on the teats.
6. The milking unit automatically detaches when all four quarters are empty. The farmer will double check each quarter to ensure that they are milked out and healthy.
How long after calving are cows rebred?
When are nutritional needs the highest?
When does milk production peak?
4th - 7th week
When a cow loses weight during peak lactation due to such high energy production that it cannot be replaced in the diet fast enough.
Negative Energy Balance
When a cow decreases milk production and is able to increase body weight.
Positive Energy Balance
Typical length of lactation