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Flashcards in British Public Attitudes to Conflict Deck (53):
1

Initial enthusiasm as the war was predicted to be short - what common phrase was used

"war over by Christmas"

2

Why did the war receive more public support than the Boer war had?

German was a geographically close enemy
unlike X2 independent Boer republics

3

Political support for war was strong - which party had opposed the BW which supported this war

Irish National Party

4

Womens Suffrage movements supported war, this was seen through what X3 actions

1. suspend all activity until war ceases

2. encourage young men to volunteer

3. The Suffragette (paper) replaced w patriotic paper Britannia

5

Who did the Britannia paper criticise

Liberals - thought they were being soft on Germany

6

Trade Unions support or oppose war

mainly support

7

How did trade unions show their support for war

offered no-strike agreements

8

Lord Northcliffe pro or anti war? What did he influence?

pro war

influence press as owned Times and Daily Mail

9

Whose letter did the Times refuse to publish which criticised the war?

Lord Lansdowne's

10

What did Lord Lansdowne's letter do?

said the war was causing "human suffering" and was spelling "ruin to the civilised world"

11

Evidence of support for war seen also though (X4)

- noisy crowds demonstrating

- lack of substantial anti-war campaigns

- rise of anti-german sentiment

- pro-war songs and poetry

12

derogatory name for Germans coined during war

"hun"

13

How was Lord Lansdowne's call for negotiated peace in 1916 responded too

little support

shows scale of support for war

14

when did Lord Lansdowne propose a negotiated peace

1916

15

who suggested that families of the dead see cause as a sacrifice not a slaughter

Todman (historian)

16

according to Todman families of the dead didn't see war as a 'slaughter' but a..

sacrifice

17

Who song become regular at public entertainment and events which showed pro-war stance

God save the King

18

what type of cartoons showed support for the war?

conscientious objectors seen as weak, selfish and effeminate

19

Which Party leader was a pacifist and so opposed war

James MacDonald of the Labour Party

20

What happened to James MacDonald after Labour decided to support war?

forced to resign

21

Who was James MacDonald?

Labour party leader who was a pacifist, who was forced to resign after Labour began supporting war

22

What was the name of the Independent Labour Journal

Labour Elector

23

Who was the editor of the Independent Labour Journal

Brockway

24

Who was Brockway?

editor of the Independent Labour Journal

arrested for refusing to fight in the armed services

25

Which Irish party opposed war?

Irish National Brotherhood

wanted German cooperation to distance themselves from British

26

Which British party with only 6,500 members opposed war

British Socialist Party

27

Which party saw their newspapers publication decline, which shows support for war?

British socialist party
since they opposed war

28

Some Independent Labour Party members opposed war, name one

Kier Hardie

29

Who was arrested for leading a munitions workers strike in Glasgow in 1917

Kirkwood

30

Who was Kirkwood

ILP member
opposed war
led munitions workers strike in Glasgow (1917)

31

How many conscientious objectors were there

16,500

32

What did the No Conscription Fellowship membership peak at

5,500

33

When did the No Conscription Fellowship membership peak

1917

34

When was the No Conscription Fellowship formed

December 1914

35

Some intelligentsia opposed war, name one

the philosopher Russell

36

Who was imprisoned for 6months for publishing seditious material

Russell

37

Sassoon originally had what opinion of war, and then converted

Positive and enthusiastic
later saw it as "evil and unjust" with "political errors"

38

How many times was a negotiated called for in the House of Commons?

X3

39

Where was Lord Lansdowne's letter eventually published?

Daily Telegraph

40

In 1918 how many working days were lost via strike action

5.9 million

41

What was the main cause of strike action seen to be?

economic issues

not directly about war involvement

42

Number of strikes in comparison to pre-war

substantially below pre-war level

43

What did the government set up in response to more industrial stoppages

Commission of Inquiry into Industrial Unrest

44

What did the Commission of Inquiry into Industrial Unrest find was the main cause of industrial strikes?

High food prices
as opposed to war

45

One of the causes of high food prices

German U-Boat campaign from 1916 affecting British imports

46

Which class benefitted most from war

working class
regularity of work + higher wages

47

Which class lost most from war

middle / upper
paid higher taxes + had to live w out certain luxuries

48

Where was the only place revolutionary defeatism was a large threat?

Glasgow

49

What was significant about Glasgow during German's 1918 Spring Offensive?

industrial action suspended
surge of patriotism to replace lost materiel

50

Left-wing activism seen during war by shop stewards - where and how many met in 1917

1,100 socialists meet in Leeds to protest

51

The renaming of German roads was an act of Germanophobia, give an example

Mecklenburg

52

How many attended a "Peace Demonstration" in Glasgow 1914 organised by the ILP?

5,000

53

Growth of ILP members 1914-1919?

3,000 to 10,000