Flashcards in British Public Attitudes to Conflict Deck (53):
Initial enthusiasm as the war was predicted to be short - what common phrase was used
"war over by Christmas"
Why did the war receive more public support than the Boer war had?
German was a geographically close enemy
unlike X2 independent Boer republics
Political support for war was strong - which party had opposed the BW which supported this war
Irish National Party
Womens Suffrage movements supported war, this was seen through what X3 actions
1. suspend all activity until war ceases
2. encourage young men to volunteer
3. The Suffragette (paper) replaced w patriotic paper Britannia
Who did the Britannia paper criticise
Liberals - thought they were being soft on Germany
Trade Unions support or oppose war
How did trade unions show their support for war
offered no-strike agreements
Lord Northcliffe pro or anti war? What did he influence?
influence press as owned Times and Daily Mail
Whose letter did the Times refuse to publish which criticised the war?
What did Lord Lansdowne's letter do?
said the war was causing "human suffering" and was spelling "ruin to the civilised world"
Evidence of support for war seen also though (X4)
- noisy crowds demonstrating
- lack of substantial anti-war campaigns
- rise of anti-german sentiment
- pro-war songs and poetry
derogatory name for Germans coined during war
How was Lord Lansdowne's call for negotiated peace in 1916 responded too
shows scale of support for war
when did Lord Lansdowne propose a negotiated peace
who suggested that families of the dead see cause as a sacrifice not a slaughter
according to Todman families of the dead didn't see war as a 'slaughter' but a..
Who song become regular at public entertainment and events which showed pro-war stance
God save the King
what type of cartoons showed support for the war?
conscientious objectors seen as weak, selfish and effeminate
Which Party leader was a pacifist and so opposed war
James MacDonald of the Labour Party
What happened to James MacDonald after Labour decided to support war?
forced to resign
Who was James MacDonald?
Labour party leader who was a pacifist, who was forced to resign after Labour began supporting war
What was the name of the Independent Labour Journal
Who was the editor of the Independent Labour Journal
Who was Brockway?
editor of the Independent Labour Journal
arrested for refusing to fight in the armed services
Which Irish party opposed war?
Irish National Brotherhood
wanted German cooperation to distance themselves from British
Which British party with only 6,500 members opposed war
British Socialist Party
Which party saw their newspapers publication decline, which shows support for war?
British socialist party
since they opposed war
Some Independent Labour Party members opposed war, name one
Who was arrested for leading a munitions workers strike in Glasgow in 1917
Who was Kirkwood
led munitions workers strike in Glasgow (1917)
How many conscientious objectors were there
What did the No Conscription Fellowship membership peak at
When did the No Conscription Fellowship membership peak
When was the No Conscription Fellowship formed
Some intelligentsia opposed war, name one
the philosopher Russell
Who was imprisoned for 6months for publishing seditious material
Sassoon originally had what opinion of war, and then converted
Positive and enthusiastic
later saw it as "evil and unjust" with "political errors"
How many times was a negotiated called for in the House of Commons?
Where was Lord Lansdowne's letter eventually published?
In 1918 how many working days were lost via strike action
What was the main cause of strike action seen to be?
not directly about war involvement
Number of strikes in comparison to pre-war
substantially below pre-war level
What did the government set up in response to more industrial stoppages
Commission of Inquiry into Industrial Unrest
What did the Commission of Inquiry into Industrial Unrest find was the main cause of industrial strikes?
High food prices
as opposed to war
One of the causes of high food prices
German U-Boat campaign from 1916 affecting British imports
Which class benefitted most from war
regularity of work + higher wages
Which class lost most from war
middle / upper
paid higher taxes + had to live w out certain luxuries
Where was the only place revolutionary defeatism was a large threat?
What was significant about Glasgow during German's 1918 Spring Offensive?
industrial action suspended
surge of patriotism to replace lost materiel
Left-wing activism seen during war by shop stewards - where and how many met in 1917
1,100 socialists meet in Leeds to protest
The renaming of German roads was an act of Germanophobia, give an example
How many attended a "Peace Demonstration" in Glasgow 1914 organised by the ILP?