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Flashcards in Women Deck (75):
1

What is the term for the philosophy that men and women should occupy different areas of employment?

separate spheres philosophy

2

Example of how men resented women becoming increasingly employed throughout war

male dockers in Liverpool preventing women being employed

3

Number of women in paid employment in 1914

5.9million

4

Main occupation within paid employment for women in 1914

domestic service

5

Number of women in paid employment 1918

7.35million

6

% increase in women in paid employment 1914-18

22.5%

7

How many women were working for the first time during war?

1.5million

8

When did the WSPU organise a march to demand the right for women to be allowed to serve their country?

July 1915, London

9

Increase in number of women employed in transport?

544%

10

Number of women working in transport by end of war

117,200

11

Example of occupation women took over within transport

ticket collectors, tram drivers

12

In 1916 what transport company began training 500 women a month

London Omnibus Company

13

How many women was the London Omnibus Company training monthly by 1916

500

14

Increase in number of women in administration and civil service

1,750%

15

By end of war what % of munitions were produced by women?

80%

16

What industry had the greatest gender gap in pay, what % was this?

munitions

around 50%

17

term for those who worked in munitions factories due to yellow colouring from chemicals

Canaries

18

Increase in number of women employed in munitions factories 1914-18

X10

19

Number of women working in munitions factories 1914

90,000

20

Number of women working in munitions factories 1918

947,000

21

When was the Women's Land Army set up

1915

22

How many trained nurses in War office in 1914

only 700

23

number of trained nurses in war office in 1918

23,000

24

What proportion of the VAD (voluntary aid detachment) were female

2/3

25

FANY (First Aid Nursing Yeomanry) was set up when

1907

26

When was the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps set up

1917

27

How many women were part of the WAAC throughout war?

57,000

28

What jobs did women of the WAAC occupy?

clerks, cooks, mainly administrative

29

How many women were members of the Women's Royal Naval Service (WRNS)

6,000

30

When was the WRNS set up

1917

31

What were members of the WRNS not allowed to do

serve at sea

32

How was the WRNS advertised to promote membership?

"Free a man for sea service"

33

From what year did the Royal Flying Corps have an all female flying company

1917

34

What were women who joined the WRAF trained in

take over role of home-based mechanics / engineers

in order to free men in starred occupations for service

35

How many did the WRAF train

2,000 women in 40 trades

36

Skills the WRAF taught women included....

parachute packing, radio operators, flight mechanics

37

Fawcett (president of the NUWSS) comment on what the war did for the position of women

"the war revolutionised the industrial position of women"

38

Why were women not as welcomed into unions

men felt they were competition for jobs

felt it may threaten their pay

39

How were women's finances post-war?

financially better off than pre-war

despite their wages being less than their male counterparts

40

Comment on the increase in women in full employment

not that drastic an increase

many transferred from other employment

41

What was the rate of employment of women 2yrs post-war compared to pre-war

fewer in paid employment

42

When did the number of women in the workplace once again reach war time levels?

only by 1939

43

Reduction in domestic servants by 1918

400,000

44

How many women had replaced male workers in employment? meaning their employment was not fully secure

1 in 3

45

Name a union which refused to represent women

Lancashire Cotton Spinners

46

Which governments demands brought improvements to womens pay

Labour

47

What improvements were there in women's pay in 1918

labour demanded women earn over £2 weekly when in munitions factories

48

Number of women elected into parliament in 1918

1

49

What 1918 act allowed 8.5million women to vote

Representation of the People's Act

50

Conditions to be allowed to vote as a woman from 1918

- over 30
- land access

51

What proportion of the female population could vote from 1918 and what proportion of men?

just under 1/3 of women and 1/2 of men

52

What act tackled gender bias in employment in 1919?

Sex Disqualification Act

53

When was the Sex Disqualification Act introduced that made it illegal to exclude women from jobs due to gender?

1919

54

What act undermined the significance of the Sex Disqualification Act?

Restoration of Pre-War Practices Act (1919)

55

When was the Restoration of Pre-War Practices Act introduced?

1919

56

What cultural differences were there for women post-war?

popularity of 'bob' cut

trousers become common

57

Which prominent politician changed his attitudes to women?

Asquith

58

What was Asquith's original opinion of women and the vote?

blocked attempts to give women the vote when PM

59

How did Asquith's opinion of women change during war?

acknowledged that there would be a "new order" post-war

questioned how the war could have carried on without women

60

proportion of women who entered the labour force during war who had given up their jobs by 1920

2/3

61

What was notable about females entering the medical profession post-war?

hospitals that had accepted women as medical students began to turn them away

62

In 1921 what resolution did female civil servants pass that undermined the role of married women?

resolution against married women working alongside them

63

When did female civil servants pass a resolution against having married women working alongside them?

1921

64

X2 reasons for decline in domestic servants

a) women had access to other, better paid, more respected forms of employment

b) upper class couldn't afford servants due to taxation increases

65

What month in 1918 did women's suffrage for over 30s get passed?

October

66

Who was the 1st elected female MP

Lady Astor (conservative)

67

How many women faced unmarried life?

1 in 6

68

What changes to suffrage came about in 1928?

universal suffrage for all over 21

69

How were some of the VAD nurses awarded?

via military medals

70

How many women received military medals?

130

71

Representation of the People Act 1918 expanded overall electorate by what

from 8 million to 21 million

72

What was included in the Assault against alcohol which showed social repression of women?

even greater restrictions on when alcohol can be bought

73

When did the London Omnibus Company begin to employ women?

only by 1916

74

Which association showed great hostility towards women - saying it would be 'unwise' to employ them?

Amalgamated Association of Tram and Vehicle Workers

75

How many women helped bring in 1918 harvest?

only 16,000

not all WLA members