Flashcards in Women Deck (75):
What is the term for the philosophy that men and women should occupy different areas of employment?
separate spheres philosophy
Example of how men resented women becoming increasingly employed throughout war
male dockers in Liverpool preventing women being employed
Number of women in paid employment in 1914
Main occupation within paid employment for women in 1914
Number of women in paid employment 1918
% increase in women in paid employment 1914-18
How many women were working for the first time during war?
When did the WSPU organise a march to demand the right for women to be allowed to serve their country?
July 1915, London
Increase in number of women employed in transport?
Number of women working in transport by end of war
Example of occupation women took over within transport
ticket collectors, tram drivers
In 1916 what transport company began training 500 women a month
London Omnibus Company
How many women was the London Omnibus Company training monthly by 1916
Increase in number of women in administration and civil service
By end of war what % of munitions were produced by women?
What industry had the greatest gender gap in pay, what % was this?
term for those who worked in munitions factories due to yellow colouring from chemicals
Increase in number of women employed in munitions factories 1914-18
Number of women working in munitions factories 1914
Number of women working in munitions factories 1918
When was the Women's Land Army set up
How many trained nurses in War office in 1914
number of trained nurses in war office in 1918
What proportion of the VAD (voluntary aid detachment) were female
FANY (First Aid Nursing Yeomanry) was set up when
When was the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps set up
How many women were part of the WAAC throughout war?
What jobs did women of the WAAC occupy?
clerks, cooks, mainly administrative
How many women were members of the Women's Royal Naval Service (WRNS)
When was the WRNS set up
What were members of the WRNS not allowed to do
serve at sea
How was the WRNS advertised to promote membership?
"Free a man for sea service"
From what year did the Royal Flying Corps have an all female flying company
What were women who joined the WRAF trained in
take over role of home-based mechanics / engineers
in order to free men in starred occupations for service
How many did the WRAF train
2,000 women in 40 trades
Skills the WRAF taught women included....
parachute packing, radio operators, flight mechanics
Fawcett (president of the NUWSS) comment on what the war did for the position of women
"the war revolutionised the industrial position of women"
Why were women not as welcomed into unions
men felt they were competition for jobs
felt it may threaten their pay
How were women's finances post-war?
financially better off than pre-war
despite their wages being less than their male counterparts
Comment on the increase in women in full employment
not that drastic an increase
many transferred from other employment
What was the rate of employment of women 2yrs post-war compared to pre-war
fewer in paid employment
When did the number of women in the workplace once again reach war time levels?
only by 1939
Reduction in domestic servants by 1918
How many women had replaced male workers in employment? meaning their employment was not fully secure
1 in 3
Name a union which refused to represent women
Lancashire Cotton Spinners
Which governments demands brought improvements to womens pay
What improvements were there in women's pay in 1918
labour demanded women earn over £2 weekly when in munitions factories
Number of women elected into parliament in 1918
What 1918 act allowed 8.5million women to vote
Representation of the People's Act
Conditions to be allowed to vote as a woman from 1918
- over 30
- land access
What proportion of the female population could vote from 1918 and what proportion of men?
just under 1/3 of women and 1/2 of men
What act tackled gender bias in employment in 1919?
Sex Disqualification Act
When was the Sex Disqualification Act introduced that made it illegal to exclude women from jobs due to gender?
What act undermined the significance of the Sex Disqualification Act?
Restoration of Pre-War Practices Act (1919)
When was the Restoration of Pre-War Practices Act introduced?
What cultural differences were there for women post-war?
popularity of 'bob' cut
trousers become common
Which prominent politician changed his attitudes to women?
What was Asquith's original opinion of women and the vote?
blocked attempts to give women the vote when PM
How did Asquith's opinion of women change during war?
acknowledged that there would be a "new order" post-war
questioned how the war could have carried on without women
proportion of women who entered the labour force during war who had given up their jobs by 1920
What was notable about females entering the medical profession post-war?
hospitals that had accepted women as medical students began to turn them away
In 1921 what resolution did female civil servants pass that undermined the role of married women?
resolution against married women working alongside them
When did female civil servants pass a resolution against having married women working alongside them?
X2 reasons for decline in domestic servants
a) women had access to other, better paid, more respected forms of employment
b) upper class couldn't afford servants due to taxation increases
What month in 1918 did women's suffrage for over 30s get passed?
Who was the 1st elected female MP
Lady Astor (conservative)
How many women faced unmarried life?
1 in 6
What changes to suffrage came about in 1928?
universal suffrage for all over 21
How were some of the VAD nurses awarded?
via military medals
How many women received military medals?
Representation of the People Act 1918 expanded overall electorate by what
from 8 million to 21 million
What was included in the Assault against alcohol which showed social repression of women?
even greater restrictions on when alcohol can be bought
When did the London Omnibus Company begin to employ women?
only by 1916
Which association showed great hostility towards women - saying it would be 'unwise' to employ them?
Amalgamated Association of Tram and Vehicle Workers