Flashcards in Building Construction/Collapse Deck (97):
What is the life span of a building?
24 hours a day ____ is working to pull a building down
On average, how many firefighters lose their lives each year?
Since the 1900s, the frequency of fires has gone up or gone down?
Since the 1900s, the frequency of firefighter deaths has...
Stayed the same
What are the 4 reasons why it is important for us to speak "building construction language?"
Enables us to communicate with other agencies
Enables us to be more specific when speaking to each other
Helps our professional image
Clear and precise communication is essential on the fireground
Forces placed upon structural components are known as ____
Buildings are subject to multiple types of loads. Some are planned for, some are not. These two loads are called....
Designed and undesigned loads
When it comes to knowledge of loads in a building, firefighters should have...
A basic understanding of them
Firefighters should be able to understand how the building loads will change when...
The building is compromised
Buildings are built to withstand ____
What is the "gravity resistance system" in a building?
All structural elements and connections that support and transfer the loads placed on a structure
The "gravity resistance system" in a building is designed to...
Transfer all loads placed on the structure down to the ground
Compromise of the gravity resistance system interrupts...
Load transfer to the ground
Loads are placed on adjoining structural members which were not designed to handle them
____ is the enemy of all buildings
What are the 2 basic load categories caused by gravity?
What are dead loads?
The weight of the building and everything permanently attached to it
What are live loads?
The weight of all movable things in and on the building
(People and furniture)
What are the 2 reasons why we care about dead loads?
Added dead load such as air conditioners etc may not be planned for structurally
Reductions in dead weight at the top of a building allows the reduction in the overall weight of the gravity resistance system and less mass means less fire resistance
Fire resistance is related to ____ ___ to ___ ratio
What are the 4 reasons why we care about live loads?
Live loads cannot be specifically calculated
Building codes specify minimum designs for specific uses
If building use changes, the actual live loads may change
Firefighting can add live load to the structure that it is not designed for
A 1000 gpm master stream flowing for 1 minute adds how much weight to a building?
Over 8000 pounds
How and where the load or force is applied to the materials determines...
What internal stresses the material experiences
Loads placed on a building create...
Stress within the materials bearing the load
What are the 3 basic types of stress in materials?
What is compression?
Squeezing the material together
What is tension?
Pulling the material apart
What is shear?
Sliding or bending type stress in the member
What is an axial load?
Loads applied parallel to the axis of the member and pass through the centroid of the cross section of the member
What are flexural or bending stresses?
Force is applied perpendicular to the axis of the member
What is an eccentric load?
Loads that are applied parallel to the axis of the member but that do not pass through the center of the cross section of the member
What is deformation?
The change in the size and shape of a member under a load
What is elasticity?
The ability of a material to return to size and shape after deformation under load
What is a ductile material?
Can be subject to large amounts of stress without breaking
What is a brittle material?
A material that will break early when subject to large amounts of stress
Concrete is good under which type of load?
It's not good under which type of load?
Good for compression
Not good for tension
Depending on it's makeup, steel is good for both...
Tension and compression
Wood is ____ in compression and as well as tension
What are some examples of environmental loads?
Based on where the building is built, it must be able lto withstand different types of environmental loads
The normal live load calculation for snow and rain is...
20psf for roofs
Rain load depends on...
If the water is able to run off or not and how quickly
Structural stability depends on what 5 things?
Method of load transfer
Buildings are built to transfer all loads through the _____ to the ____
What is important about the connection of members?
The method of the connection
A building can be built with super strong materials, but if they are not connected in a way that is as strong as the materials...
It will fail when subject to extraordinary loads
Structural stability of a building is only as strong as it's____
Structural stability is built to withstand...
Normal designed loads
As the surface to mass ratio increases, the fire resistance of the structure ____
What is a distributed load?
Load distributed over a large area
What is a concentrated load?
Loads applied in a small area
What is an impact load?
A load applied while at motion
What is a static load?
A load that is applied slowly and remains nearly constant
Normal structural loading of a building has built in ____ loads
Typically, static loads in the building are unchanged unless...
The structural supports fail
What are the 2 ways we regulate the construction and maintenance of buildings?
Building codes can be ____ or ____
What do building and fire codes do?
Deliniate the level of risk a community will face in regard to building failure
What does a specification code do?
Establishes building construction requirements through particular methods and materials
What is a performance code?
Sets a requirement for performance that must be met
Do performance codes limit the selection of materials and systems used?
No, as long as they meet the performance requirement
Why do we care about the type of code the city is under?
Under a specification code buildings were required to use certain sized beams to support certain loads
Under performance code, the builders could use TGI beams in place of a full sized beam and support the same load
What year was the Iroquois Theater Fire and how many died?
What kind of code changes did it lead to?
Panic exit devices for emergency egress
What year was the Cocoanut Grove Fire and how many died?
What kind of code changes did it lead to?
Visible exit signs, outward opening emergency exits, limiting use of flammable decoration
What year was the Beverly Hills Supper Club Fire and how many died?
What kind of code changes did it lead to?
Limiting the use of aluminum wiring, requiring fire alarms for public assembly areas to have audible evacuation tone
What year and how many dead?
Happyland social club
Our lady of angels catholic school
Triangle shirt waist factory
Does adopting a code guarantee safety?
___ and ____ are as important as the code itself
What year and how many died during the Station Nightclub fire?
Before it was a nightclub, the Station was...
A restaurant and exempt from sprinkler requirement
What did fire inspectors miss when the Station was changed to a nightclub?
They missed the sprinkler requirement
In Tucson, what is the estimate between fire inspections?
For our safety, ___ is a must.
The IBC classifies buildings in what 2 ways?
What does IBC stand for?
International Building Code
In general, the more flammable/dangerous the construction type, the more...
Stringent the building and fire code requirements
The IBC classifies buildings as 10 different things. Good luck naming them all...
Utility and miscellaneous
What are the 5 standard types of construction?
Type V Wood Frame
Type IV Heavy Timber
Type III Ordinary Construction
Type II Non Combustible
Type I Fire Resistive
Know the difference between balloon and platform type construction...
With heavy timber construction, columns and beams are a minimum of what size?
What type of construction is considered "Main Street USA"?
What are the 3 types of noncombustible buildings?
Metal frame structure covered by metal exterior walls
metal frame structure enclosed by masonry
Masonry bearing walls supporting a metal roof
With fire resistive construction, structural elements are...
Protected from fire exposure
With fire resistive construction, what is encasement?
Enclosing in fire resistive enclosure such as fire rated drywall
With fire resistive construction, what is encapsulated?
Coated with fire resistive material
What are 2 examples of encapsulated fire resistive construction?
What are the 3 ways structural elements are protected from fire exposure?
What are the 4 size up errors with timber truss roofs?
Not recognizing the presence of a truss roof
Lack of heat gives a false sense of safety
Low fire load?
What did Francis Brannigan say about lightweight truss roofs?
If there is enough heat and fire to require ventilation, the roof is unsafe
What is a code red?
When anyone on the fire ground sees or suspects a building collapse
Who initiates a code red?
Group/division supervisor or IC
During a code red as a firefighter, you should take only the equipment that...
You will need to exit the building
Don't risk your life delaying your exit by removing other equipment
What 2 things can an engineer do to signal a code red?
15 second blast on air horn
Surge the lines
What do captains do during a code red?
Conduct a personnel accountability roll call
What is the collapse zone of a building?
1.5 times the height of a building
Principle support members
Less mass means what when it comes to construction?
Less time before a collapse