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Flashcards in Building Construction/Collapse Deck (97):
1

What is the life span of a building?

75-100 years

2

24 hours a day ____ is working to pull a building down

Gravity

3

On average, how many firefighters lose their lives each year?

110

4

Since the 1900s, the frequency of fires has gone up or gone down?

Gone down
Dropped considerably

5

Since the 1900s, the frequency of firefighter deaths has...

Stayed the same

6

What are the 4 reasons why it is important for us to speak "building construction language?"

Enables us to communicate with other agencies
Enables us to be more specific when speaking to each other
Helps our professional image
Clear and precise communication is essential on the fireground

7

Forces placed upon structural components are known as ____

Loads

8

Buildings are subject to multiple types of loads. Some are planned for, some are not. These two loads are called....

Designed and undesigned loads

9

When it comes to knowledge of loads in a building, firefighters should have...

A basic understanding of them

10

Firefighters should be able to understand how the building loads will change when...

The building is compromised

11

Buildings are built to withstand ____

Gravity

12

What is the "gravity resistance system" in a building?

All structural elements and connections that support and transfer the loads placed on a structure

13

The "gravity resistance system" in a building is designed to...

Transfer all loads placed on the structure down to the ground

14

Compromise of the gravity resistance system interrupts...

Load transfer to the ground

Loads are placed on adjoining structural members which were not designed to handle them

15

____ is the enemy of all buildings

Gravity

16

What are the 2 basic load categories caused by gravity?

Dead loads
Live loads

17

What are dead loads?

The weight of the building and everything permanently attached to it

18

What are live loads?

The weight of all movable things in and on the building
(People and furniture)

19

What are the 2 reasons why we care about dead loads?

Added dead load such as air conditioners etc may not be planned for structurally

Reductions in dead weight at the top of a building allows the reduction in the overall weight of the gravity resistance system and less mass means less fire resistance

20

Fire resistance is related to ____ ___ to ___ ratio

Surface area
Mass

21

What are the 4 reasons why we care about live loads?

Live loads cannot be specifically calculated
Building codes specify minimum designs for specific uses
If building use changes, the actual live loads may change
Firefighting can add live load to the structure that it is not designed for

22

A 1000 gpm master stream flowing for 1 minute adds how much weight to a building?

Over 8000 pounds

23

How and where the load or force is applied to the materials determines...

What internal stresses the material experiences

24

Loads placed on a building create...

Stress within the materials bearing the load

25

What are the 3 basic types of stress in materials?

Compression
Tension
Shear

26

What is compression?

Squeezing the material together

27

What is tension?

Pulling the material apart

28

What is shear?

Sliding or bending type stress in the member

29

What is an axial load?

Loads applied parallel to the axis of the member and pass through the centroid of the cross section of the member

30

What are flexural or bending stresses?

Force is applied perpendicular to the axis of the member

31

What is an eccentric load?

Loads that are applied parallel to the axis of the member but that do not pass through the center of the cross section of the member

32

What is deformation?

The change in the size and shape of a member under a load

33

What is elasticity?

The ability of a material to return to size and shape after deformation under load

34

What is a ductile material?

Can be subject to large amounts of stress without breaking

35

What is a brittle material?

A material that will break early when subject to large amounts of stress

36

Concrete is good under which type of load?
It's not good under which type of load?

Good for compression
Not good for tension

37

Depending on it's makeup, steel is good for both...

Tension and compression

38

Wood is ____ in compression and as well as tension

Decent

39

What are some examples of environmental loads?

Snow
Wind
Earthquakes
Hurricanes

Based on where the building is built, it must be able lto withstand different types of environmental loads

40

The normal live load calculation for snow and rain is...

20psf for roofs

41

Rain load depends on...

If the water is able to run off or not and how quickly

42

Structural stability depends on what 5 things?

Designed/undesigned loads
Dead/Live loads
Method of load transfer

43

Buildings are built to transfer all loads through the _____ to the ____

Structure
Ground

44

What is important about the connection of members?

The method of the connection

45

A building can be built with super strong materials, but if they are not connected in a way that is as strong as the materials...

It will fail when subject to extraordinary loads

46

Structural stability of a building is only as strong as it's____

Connections

47

Structural stability is built to withstand...

Normal designed loads

48

As the surface to mass ratio increases, the fire resistance of the structure ____

Decreases

49

What is a distributed load?

Load distributed over a large area

50

What is a concentrated load?

Loads applied in a small area
Point loading

51

What is an impact load?

A load applied while at motion

52

What is a static load?

A load that is applied slowly and remains nearly constant

53

Normal structural loading of a building has built in ____ loads

Static loads

54

Typically, static loads in the building are unchanged unless...

The structural supports fail

55

What are the 2 ways we regulate the construction and maintenance of buildings?

Building codes
Fire codes

56

Building codes can be ____ or ____

Specific
Generalized

57

What do building and fire codes do?

Deliniate the level of risk a community will face in regard to building failure

58

What does a specification code do?

Establishes building construction requirements through particular methods and materials

59

What is a performance code?

Sets a requirement for performance that must be met

60

Do performance codes limit the selection of materials and systems used?

No, as long as they meet the performance requirement

61

Why do we care about the type of code the city is under?

Under a specification code buildings were required to use certain sized beams to support certain loads

Under performance code, the builders could use TGI beams in place of a full sized beam and support the same load

62

What year was the Iroquois Theater Fire and how many died?
What kind of code changes did it lead to?

1903
602
Panic exit devices for emergency egress

63

What year was the Cocoanut Grove Fire and how many died?
What kind of code changes did it lead to?

1942
492
Visible exit signs, outward opening emergency exits, limiting use of flammable decoration

64

What year was the Beverly Hills Supper Club Fire and how many died?
What kind of code changes did it lead to?

1977
165
Limiting the use of aluminum wiring, requiring fire alarms for public assembly areas to have audible evacuation tone

65

What year and how many dead?
Happyland social club
Our lady of angels catholic school
Triangle shirt waist factory
Rhythm nightclub

1990 87
1958 95
1911 146
1940 203

66

Does adopting a code guarantee safety?

NO

67

___ and ____ are as important as the code itself

Education
Enforcement

68

What year and how many died during the Station Nightclub fire?

2003 100

69

Before it was a nightclub, the Station was...

A restaurant and exempt from sprinkler requirement

70

What did fire inspectors miss when the Station was changed to a nightclub?

They missed the sprinkler requirement

71

In Tucson, what is the estimate between fire inspections?

10 years

72

For our safety, ___ is a must.

Preplanning

73

The IBC classifies buildings in what 2 ways?

Occupancy type
Construction type

74

What does IBC stand for?

International Building Code

75

In general, the more flammable/dangerous the construction type, the more...

Stringent the building and fire code requirements

76

The IBC classifies buildings as 10 different things. Good luck naming them all...

Assembly
Business
Educational
Factory
High Hazard
Institutional
Mecantile
Residential
Storage
Utility and miscellaneous

77

What are the 5 standard types of construction?

Type V Wood Frame
Type IV Heavy Timber
Type III Ordinary Construction
Type II Non Combustible
Type I Fire Resistive

78

Know the difference between balloon and platform type construction...

Kaaaay?

79

With heavy timber construction, columns and beams are a minimum of what size?

Columns 8x8
Beams 6x6

80

What type of construction is considered "Main Street USA"?

Type III

81

What are the 3 types of noncombustible buildings?

Metal frame structure covered by metal exterior walls
metal frame structure enclosed by masonry
Masonry bearing walls supporting a metal roof

82

With fire resistive construction, structural elements are...

Protected from fire exposure

83

With fire resistive construction, what is encasement?

Enclosing in fire resistive enclosure such as fire rated drywall

84

With fire resistive construction, what is encapsulated?

Coated with fire resistive material

85

What are 2 examples of encapsulated fire resistive construction?

Intumescent paints
Spray on

86

What are the 3 ways structural elements are protected from fire exposure?

Encasement
Encapsulation
Membrane

87

What are the 4 size up errors with timber truss roofs?

Not recognizing the presence of a truss roof
Lack of heat gives a false sense of safety
Conflicting reports
Low fire load?

88

What did Francis Brannigan say about lightweight truss roofs?

If there is enough heat and fire to require ventilation, the roof is unsafe

89

What is a code red?

When anyone on the fire ground sees or suspects a building collapse

90

Who initiates a code red?

Group/division supervisor or IC

91

During a code red as a firefighter, you should take only the equipment that...

You will need to exit the building

Don't risk your life delaying your exit by removing other equipment

92

What 2 things can an engineer do to signal a code red?

15 second blast on air horn
Surge the lines

93

What do captains do during a code red?

Conduct a personnel accountability roll call

94

What is the collapse zone of a building?

1.5 times the height of a building

95

Never cut...

Principle support members

96

Less mass means what when it comes to construction?

Less time before a collapse

97

What are the 3 final things to remember listed on the power point?

Preplan
Look for voids
Watch the connections