Flashcards in Water Distribution Deck (109):
The Roman aqueduct system operated almost exclusively by ______
When and where was the first water system established in the US?
1801 in Philadelphia
When did the Tucson Water Company begin operating and delivering the first piped water into town?
Where did the phrase "Catch that plug" come from?
Wooden water mains that needed to be plugged up
What are the 2 sources of water that TFD uses for firefighting purposes?
Static and pressurized
What is a static source of water?
Any source of water that needs to be mechanically moved into a fire apparatus
What are 5 examples of static water sources?
What is drafting?
The process of raising water from a static source to a pump
When are the only 2 times that TFD drafts water?
At the test pit during pump tests and in water tender shuttle operations
What are the 3 things that affect drafting?
What is lift?
The difference between the level of water and the center of the pump
What is vacuum?
An enclosed space from which matter, especially air, has been partially removed
What is atmospheric pressure?
The weight of a column of air at a given location on the surface of the earth
What is the average atmospheric pressure at sea level?
What is the atmospheric pressure in Tucson?
How does drafting work?
By decreasing the pressure in the pump and hose below atmospheric pressure, the water is forced into the hose
What is a pressurized water source?
Any water source that will flow freely into a fire apparatus
What are 3 examples of pressurized water sources?
If a booster tank is less than 750 gallons, it must be able to gravity feed ___ gpm to the pump
If a booster tank is more than 750 gallons, it must be able to gravity feed ___ gpm to the pump
What do water tenders do?
Bring water to places where there are few or no hydrants available
How much water does WT20 carry?
What is the purpose of a hydrant?
To provide adequate and reliable water supply for fighting fire
What are the 5 components of a water distribution system?
Supply source, treatment plant, reservoir, mains, hydrants
How many active or standby wells are in the Tucson water system?
According to 2014 average, how many gallons of water per day come from wells within Tucson?
According to 2014 average, how much CAP water is blended with ground water per day?
CAP is also known as...
What does "CAP" stand for?
Central Arizona Project
Where does CAP water come from?
At well sites, what is water treated with?
Where is treatment monitored?
Reservoirs and other sites
Where are reservoirs filled from?
How many total reservoirs are there?
How many reservoirs over a million gallons?
How many reservoirs under a million gallons?
Where does the pressure in the grid system come from?
Gravity from reservoirs at higher elevations and from pumping stations
What are the 3 advantages of the grid system?
Helps reduce dead end mains
Loop or grid system will reduce friction loss by power of 4
Only once or two hydrants shut down if main is broken
What is friction loss?
The total pressure loss in the system while water is forced through pipes, fittings, valves, etc
What is the friction loss for a 6", 8", and 12" pipe for a 100' section flowing at 1000 gpm?
Within the grid system, what are the sizes of pipes...
Of primary feeders
Of secondary feeders
Of distributors or laterals
16" to 56"
16" to 24"
12" to 16"
6" to 8"
What is the smallest diameter pipe that will feed a hydrant?
If a hydrant is on a dead end main, what is the smallest diameter pipe that will feed it?
What are the 3 items that can cause friction loss and reduce flow from mains?
What is sedimentation?
Dirt and other products that collect in the system
What is incrustation?
Mineral deposits inside pipes, fittings, valves, etc
What is tuberculation?
Actual breakdown of the pipe
Why must the city be broken down into zones?
To prevent too much pressure in the mains
The top of "A" mountain shares the same elevation as...
22nd and Wilmot
If a pipe was laid from Houghton Rd to the Santa Cruz River, what would the pressure be?
What is the elevation change?
600'-700' elevation change
How many zones are within the Tucson Water System?
What is the elevation change within the zones?
What is the normal pressure range in the mains?
How much does head pressure increase for each foot of elevation loss?
Since the elevation changes 105' in a zone, and there is .434 psi increase per foot of elevation loss, what will the pressure increase be from one end of a zone to another?
All zones are connected and separated by...
Valves are _____ monitored and controlled
A valve's simple function is to...
Control the flow of water
What are the 2 classifications of valves?
Indicating and Non-Indicating
What are the 3 indicating valves?
OS&Y, PIV, and ball valve
What are the 2 non-indicating valves?
Gate and Butterfly
What does "Indicating Valve" mean?
That you can tell what position they are in just by looking at them
What does OS&Y mean?
Outside stem and yoke
What does PIV mean?
Post indicator valve
What does PIVA mean?
Post indicator valve assembly
What does WPIV mean?
Wall post indicator valve
With a hydrant, what does "static pressure" mean?
Pressure in the hydrant when it is closed and the water is at rest
With a hydrant, what does "normal operating pressure" mean?
Pressure found in a water distribution system during periods of normal consumption demand
With a hydrant, what does "residual pressure" mean?
Pressure left in the system when the hydrant is flowing
With a hydrant, what does "flow pressure" mean?
Pressure of water in motion
What association sets hydrant standards?
American Water Works Association (AWWA)
What is the working pressure of a hydrant?
What pressure are hydrants factory tested at?
How many hydrants are in the Tucson Water system?
how many hydrants are in the Tucson city limits?
What are the 2 classifications of hydrants?
Dry barrel and wet barrel
What are the 4 types of hydrant mechanisms?
Knuckle Joint or Cory
Wet (usually compression valve)
What are the components of a dry barrel hydrant?
Foot piece, barrel, bonnet, operating system, main valve, and drain
Where does a hydrant compression valve seat against?
The base of the hydrant
The hydrant compression valve moves independently on the ______ axis
Hydrant compression valves close ____ pressure and open ____ pressure
What are the 2 hydrant compression valve brands?
Dresser and Mueller
What type of valve is a "knuckle and cory" type valve?
Scissor type valve
What is the brand of a "knuckle and cory" type vale?
Pacific state and Iowa
With a slide gate valve, the gate moves ____ on the stem.
How many slide gate style hydrants does TFD have?
Where is a wet barrel hydrant pressurized at?
Each of the outlets
Wet barrel hydrants usually have what style of valve?
What is a disadvantage of a wet barrel hydrant?
The water inside can freeze in freezing temperatures
What is an advantage of a wet barrel hydrant?
Each outlet can be opened and closed independently
How would you know if a hydrant was "high pressure"?
There will be reflective yellow bands around the barrel
What is the static and residual pressure for a "high pressure" hydrant?
200 psi or greater
95 psi or greater
What kind of hose can you use on a "high pressure" hydrant?
2.5" only. Do NOT use 5"
On a hydrant, what doe the colors green/no, orange, and red mean?
1000gpm or greater
Less than 500 gpm
Tucson Water is now painting all hydrants what color?
What is the hydrant GPM flow formula?
29.7xD(D)xsquare root of flow pressurex co-efficient
What does the "D" on the hydrant gpm flow formula?
You must open and close hydrants slowly so you don't cause a ____ ____
Is it ok to kick a hydrant wrench to open or close a hydrant?
What must you do before removing hydrant caps?
Make sure the hydrant is closed
What is the residential hydrant spacing?
800' on 6" main
What is the multiple housing hydrant spacing?
500' on 8" main
What is the industrial hydrant spacing?
300' on 12" main
Fire code says that there must be __ feet of clearance around a hydrant
Fire code says that a hydrant must be __ -__ feet from the curb
Fire code says that the steamer outlet must be __ inches from the ground
What is placed in the street to indicate a fire hydrant?
How often are the hydrants in Tucson tested and maintained?
Every 4 years