Water Distribution Flashcards Preview

TFD BC > Water Distribution > Flashcards

Flashcards in Water Distribution Deck (109):
1

The Roman aqueduct system operated almost exclusively by ______

Gravity

2

When and where was the first water system established in the US?

1801 in Philadelphia

3

When did the Tucson Water Company begin operating and delivering the first piped water into town?

1881

4

Where did the phrase "Catch that plug" come from?

Wooden water mains that needed to be plugged up

5

What are the 2 sources of water that TFD uses for firefighting purposes?

Static and pressurized

6

What is a static source of water?

Any source of water that needs to be mechanically moved into a fire apparatus

7

What are 5 examples of static water sources?

Lakes/ponds/rivers
Portable tanks
Cisterns
Swimming pools
Test pit

8

What is drafting?

The process of raising water from a static source to a pump

9

When are the only 2 times that TFD drafts water?

At the test pit during pump tests and in water tender shuttle operations

10

What are the 3 things that affect drafting?

Lift
Vacuum
Atmospheric Pressure

11

What is lift?

The difference between the level of water and the center of the pump

12

What is vacuum?

An enclosed space from which matter, especially air, has been partially removed

13

What is atmospheric pressure?

The weight of a column of air at a given location on the surface of the earth

14

What is the average atmospheric pressure at sea level?

14.7 psi

15

What is the atmospheric pressure in Tucson?

13.9 psi

16

How does drafting work?

By decreasing the pressure in the pump and hose below atmospheric pressure, the water is forced into the hose

17

What is a pressurized water source?

Any water source that will flow freely into a fire apparatus

18

What are 3 examples of pressurized water sources?

Booster tanks
Water tenders
Hydrants

19

If a booster tank is less than 750 gallons, it must be able to gravity feed ___ gpm to the pump

250 gpm

20

If a booster tank is more than 750 gallons, it must be able to gravity feed ___ gpm to the pump

500 gpm

21

What do water tenders do?

Bring water to places where there are few or no hydrants available

22

How much water does WT20 carry?

2500 gallons

23

What is the purpose of a hydrant?

To provide adequate and reliable water supply for fighting fire

24

What are the 5 components of a water distribution system?

Supply source, treatment plant, reservoir, mains, hydrants

25

How many active or standby wells are in the Tucson water system?

206

26

According to 2014 average, how many gallons of water per day come from wells within Tucson?

91 million

27

According to 2014 average, how much CAP water is blended with ground water per day?

57 million

28

CAP is also known as...

Clearwater

29

What does "CAP" stand for?

Central Arizona Project

30

Where does CAP water come from?

Colorado River

31

At well sites, what is water treated with?

Chlorine

32

Where is treatment monitored?

Reservoirs and other sites

33

Where are reservoirs filled from?

Well sites

34

How many total reservoirs are there?

57

35

How many reservoirs over a million gallons?

29

36

How many reservoirs under a million gallons?

28

37

Where does the pressure in the grid system come from?

Gravity from reservoirs at higher elevations and from pumping stations

38

What are the 3 advantages of the grid system?

Helps reduce dead end mains
Loop or grid system will reduce friction loss by power of 4
Only once or two hydrants shut down if main is broken

39

What is friction loss?

The total pressure loss in the system while water is forced through pipes, fittings, valves, etc

40

What is the friction loss for a 6", 8", and 12" pipe for a 100' section flowing at 1000 gpm?

52psi
12.8psi
1.78psi

41

Within the grid system, what are the sizes of pipes...
From reservoirs
Of primary feeders
Of secondary feeders
Of distributors or laterals

16" to 56"
16" to 24"
12" to 16"
6" to 8"

42

What is the smallest diameter pipe that will feed a hydrant?

6"

43

If a hydrant is on a dead end main, what is the smallest diameter pipe that will feed it?

8"

44

What are the 3 items that can cause friction loss and reduce flow from mains?

Sedimentation
Incrustation
Tuberculation

45

What is sedimentation?

Dirt and other products that collect in the system

46

What is incrustation?

Mineral deposits inside pipes, fittings, valves, etc

47

What is tuberculation?

Actual breakdown of the pipe

48

Why must the city be broken down into zones?

To prevent too much pressure in the mains

49

The top of "A" mountain shares the same elevation as...

22nd and Wilmot

50

If a pipe was laid from Houghton Rd to the Santa Cruz River, what would the pressure be?
What is the elevation change?

300psi
600'-700' elevation change

51

How many zones are within the Tucson Water System?

19

52

What is the elevation change within the zones?

105'

53

What is the normal pressure range in the mains?

40-85psi

54

How much does head pressure increase for each foot of elevation loss?

.434 psi

55

Since the elevation changes 105' in a zone, and there is .434 psi increase per foot of elevation loss, what will the pressure increase be from one end of a zone to another?

45.6

56

All zones are connected and separated by...

Valves

57

Valves are _____ monitored and controlled

Computer

58

A valve's simple function is to...

Control the flow of water

59

What are the 2 classifications of valves?

Indicating and Non-Indicating

60

What are the 3 indicating valves?

OS&Y, PIV, and ball valve

61

What are the 2 non-indicating valves?

Gate and Butterfly

62

What does "Indicating Valve" mean?

That you can tell what position they are in just by looking at them

63

What does OS&Y mean?

Outside stem and yoke

64

What does PIV mean?

Post indicator valve

65

What does PIVA mean?

Post indicator valve assembly

66

What does WPIV mean?

Wall post indicator valve

67

With a hydrant, what does "static pressure" mean?

Pressure in the hydrant when it is closed and the water is at rest

68

With a hydrant, what does "normal operating pressure" mean?

Pressure found in a water distribution system during periods of normal consumption demand

69

With a hydrant, what does "residual pressure" mean?

Pressure left in the system when the hydrant is flowing

70

With a hydrant, what does "flow pressure" mean?

Pressure of water in motion

71

What association sets hydrant standards?

American Water Works Association (AWWA)

72

What is the working pressure of a hydrant?

150 psi

73

What pressure are hydrants factory tested at?

300 psi

74

How many hydrants are in the Tucson Water system?

20,867

75

how many hydrants are in the Tucson city limits?

14,324

76

What are the 2 classifications of hydrants?

Dry barrel and wet barrel

77

What are the 4 types of hydrant mechanisms?

Compression
Knuckle Joint or Cory
Slide gate
Wet (usually compression valve)

78

What are the components of a dry barrel hydrant?

(6)

Foot piece, barrel, bonnet, operating system, main valve, and drain

79

Where does a hydrant compression valve seat against?

The base of the hydrant

80

The hydrant compression valve moves independently on the ______ axis

Vertical

81

Hydrant compression valves close ____ pressure and open ____ pressure

With
Against

82

What are the 2 hydrant compression valve brands?

Dresser and Mueller

83

What type of valve is a "knuckle and cory" type valve?

Scissor type valve

84

What is the brand of a "knuckle and cory" type vale?

Pacific state and Iowa

85

With a slide gate valve, the gate moves ____ on the stem.

Vertically

86

How many slide gate style hydrants does TFD have?

0

87

Where is a wet barrel hydrant pressurized at?

Each of the outlets

88

Wet barrel hydrants usually have what style of valve?

Compression

89

What is a disadvantage of a wet barrel hydrant?

The water inside can freeze in freezing temperatures

90

What is an advantage of a wet barrel hydrant?

Each outlet can be opened and closed independently

91

How would you know if a hydrant was "high pressure"?

There will be reflective yellow bands around the barrel

92

What is the static and residual pressure for a "high pressure" hydrant?

200 psi or greater
95 psi or greater

93

What kind of hose can you use on a "high pressure" hydrant?

2.5" only. Do NOT use 5"

94

On a hydrant, what doe the colors green/no, orange, and red mean?

1000gpm or greater
500-999 gpm
Less than 500 gpm

95

Tucson Water is now painting all hydrants what color?

Silver

96

What is the hydrant GPM flow formula?

29.7xD(D)xsquare root of flow pressurex co-efficient

97

What does the "D" on the hydrant gpm flow formula?

Discharge diameter

98

You must open and close hydrants slowly so you don't cause a ____ ____

Water hammer

99

Is it ok to kick a hydrant wrench to open or close a hydrant?

NO

100

What must you do before removing hydrant caps?

Make sure the hydrant is closed

101

What is the residential hydrant spacing?

800' on 6" main

102

What is the multiple housing hydrant spacing?

500' on 8" main

103

What is the industrial hydrant spacing?

300' on 12" main

104

Fire code says that there must be __ feet of clearance around a hydrant

3

105

Fire code says that a hydrant must be __ -__ feet from the curb

2-7

106

Fire code says that the steamer outlet must be __ inches from the ground

16 inches

107

What is placed in the street to indicate a fire hydrant?

Blue markers

108

How often are the hydrants in Tucson tested and maintained?

Every 4 years

109

What is the "out of service" procedure?

Hydrant ring, notify fire alarm, email water department, CAD hydrant OOS information displayed