Flashcards in Burgundy - General Deck (77):
What is the Burgundian synonym for Pinot Gris?
What are the four departments of Burgundy?
Cote d'Or, Yonne, Rhone, Saone-et-Loire
What are the four regional lieux-dits of Burgundy? What styles are authorized?
Notre Dame La Chapelle
All authorized for red, white, and rosé
Where is Cote Saint-Jacques?
Where is La Chapelle Notre Dame?
Where is Le Chapitre?
Chenove (between Marsannay and Dijon)
Where is Montrecul?
What communes may append their names to Bourgogne AOP, and what styles do they produce? Where are they?
Southeast of Chablis, Blanc, rouge, et rosé for both
Northeast of Chablis
Epineuil (rouge and rosé only)
Tonnerre (Blanc only)
South of Chablis
Vezelay (Blanc only)
When was the Burgundy AOC established?
What is Bourgogne Passetoutgrains?
A regional AOP for >30% Pinot Noir and >15% Gamay.
What previous AOP did Coteaux Bourguignons AOP replace?
Bourgogne Grand Ordinaire AOP
What are the styles and varietals of Coteaux Bourguignons AOP?
Blanc/Blanc Primeur/Nouveau: Aligote, Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Melon de Bourgogne
Rose: Gamay, Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris, plus
Red: Gamay, Pinot Noir, Cesar (Yonne only), plus
What wine is traditionally used in a kir?
What is Bourgogne Mousseux?
An AOP for traditional method sparkling red wines; Gamay, Pinot Noir, and Cesar (Yonne only) must make up >51% of the blend.
How long must Cremant de Bourgogne and Bourgogne Mousseux be aged before release?
9mos en tirage for both. Bourgogne Mousseux may be released immediately, whereas Cremant de Bourgogne cannot be released before 1 year from tirage
For what regional appellation is hand-harvesting mandatory?
Crémant de Bourgogne
What are the requirements for Cote de Beaune-Villages wines?
Red only. Sourced from anywhere in the Cote de Beaune but Pommard, Volnay, Aloxe-Corton, and Beaune.
What are the styles and authorized villages for Cote de Nuits-Villages?
Red and white. Fixin, Brochon, Corgoloin, Comblanchien, Prissey
Are Corgoloin, Comblanchien, and Prissey in the north or south of the Cote de Nuits?
What is a pièce?
The classic Burgundy barrel - 228L
Which three communal appellations in the Cote d'Or have no premier crus?
Which three communes of the Cote de Beaune produce only red wine?
Cote de Nuits North to South
Cote de Beaune North to South
What is a feuillette?
The traditional 132L Chablis barrel.
What is évasivage?
What is effeuillage?
What is ebourgeonnage?
Removal of excess buds (bourgeon = bud)
What is délestage?
"Racking and returning" - pumping the fermenting wine out of the tank and pouring it back over the cap
What is égrappage?
Who founded La Paulée de Meursault?
Comte Jules Lafon, grandfather of Dominique Lafon
Communes of Marsannay
Communes of Fixin
Communes of Gevrey-Chambertin
Communes of Vosne-Romanee
Communes of Nuits-Saint-Georges
Communes of Aloxe-Corton
Communes of Volnay
Communes of Blagny
Communes of Chassagne-Montrachet
Communes of Santenay
Communes of Maranges
Largest Grand Cru in Burgundy?
Corton - 160ha
Smallest Grand Cru in Burgundy?
La Romanée - .85ha… also the smallest AOP in France!
What are chevets?
What are murgers?
Piles of rock removed from the vineyards during tilling - cairns.
IGP’s of Burgundy
Yonne IGP Coteaux de l’Auxois - covers Côte d’Or department north and west of the Haut-Côtes Sainte-Marie-la-Blanche - runs east of the D974 and Côte de Beaune Saône-et-Loire IGP Comtés Rhodaniens IGP - Rhône department, incl. Beaujolais
What is Gaules?
A small zonal IGP covering Beaujolais - currently off the books as of 2014.
What was the first “grand cru?”
Chambertin-Clos de Bèze, a gift from Duke Amalgaire of Burgundy to the Abbey of Bèze in 630AD.
When did labeling by climat (rather than village) begin?
1691 (Chambertin and Baize [Bèze])
Lavalle’s 1855 Classification divided _____ into _____?
Climats Tête de Cuvée, Première Cuvée, Deuxième Cuvée, Troisième Cuvée
What spurred the transition from head-training and provignage to trellising?
When did the appending of vineyards to village names take place?
1847 (Starting with Gevrey) to 1928 (ending with Auxey)
What % of Burgundy wine produced is négociant?
Who is the largest landowner in the Côte d’Or?
Bouchard, 130ha (Jadot has 150, but they are not all in the Côte d’Or)
What law was passed in 1919?
The original Appellation d’Origine law, formally defining appellations.
What is coupage?
The practice of blending and labeling wines according to taste profile rather than origin (aka Port) - it’s Meursault if it tastes like Meursault.
What is the difference between single and double guyot?
1 fruiting cane v. 2 fruiting canes
What is the typical row orientation in Burgundy?
East-West, running up the hill
Notable exceptions to the typical row orientation?
Clos de Tart, Clos des Lambrays, La Romanee
Minimum planting density in the Côte d’Or? Typical spacing?
9,000 vines per hectare; most vineyards are 1x1 (10,000 vines per hectare).
Planting density in Chablis and Beaujolais is typically higher or lower than the Côte d’Or?
Lower, although replanting in Chablis is often at 1x1.
What is an enjambeur?
The high clearance tractor of Burgundy.
Major biodynamic producers
Leroy, DRC, Leflaive, Dauvissat, Comtes Lafon Comte Armand
High yielding, upright growing vine, particularly popular in the 1960’s
Low-yielding, with more concentrated fruit; it’s clonal progeny are more popular today
What are the major concerns when selecting rootstock in Burgundy?
Lime tolerance. Originally riparia was planted, but with the advent of machinery, tractors create more active lime in the soil. Current rootstocks tend to be vinifera x berlandieri hybrids.
Cold Maceration: Pros
Post-crush, grapes are held at cool temperatures (10-14 C) with SO2 additions. Extracts color, produces less astringent tannin, enhances fruit aromatics.
Whole Cluster: Pros
Aeration, cooler fermentation temperatures, lighter color, slight carbonic, firm tannins
Whole Berry: Pros
High toned, floral, carbonic, without the risk of green tannin from stems, or higher pH (stems can harbor potassium).
Whole Bunch Pressing (White Wine): Pros & Cons
Pressing whole clusters without crushing the fruit. Pros: Produces a cleaner, less phenolic must with lower pH, less exposure to oxygen pre-fermentation. Cons: In the event that oxidation pre-fermentation protects the wine from premox later, whole bunch press may actually make the wine MORE susceptible to premox.
What is subtractive must enrichment, and when was it legalized?
The practice of removing water from the must to concentrate the sugars. Legalized in 2009, to a maximum factor of 10%.
Average elevation of the côtes in the Côte d’Or?
400-500M Vines rarely are planted over 400M
What is the average slope of the Grand Crus, and why
10% The gentler slope is more nutrient rich than those at higher elevation, but still well-drained.
Where do you find more limestone: Côte de Nuits or Côte de Beaune?
Nuits. Beaune is mostly made up of marl.
What is colluvium?
A mix of bedrock and soils slipped from upslope (the makeup of most of the Côte d’Or, or at least the 1er and Grand Cru sites).