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1

______________ comprise the bulk of apartments constructed in the past 20 years in most Canadian jurisdictions, especially in provinces with rent controls. In contrast, __________________ are typically pre-1980 buildings.

STRATA RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS comprise the bulk of apartments constructed in the past 20 years in most Canadian jurisdictions, especially in provinces with rent controls. In contrast, PURPOSE-BUILT RENTAL APARTMENTS are typically pre-1980 buildings.

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BACKGROUND


The focus of this chapter is the design and construction for rental and owner-occupied residential multi-family buildings.


As a starting point, it is important to define what we mean by multi¬family properties. In the broadest sense, a multi-family property is a housing development that comprises two or more self-contained dwelling units. In other words, a multi-family property can extend from a duplex to a large high-rise building.

 

The other consideration is ownership. Multi-family properties may be purpose-built rental apartments or privately owned, usually strata-titled' projects where units are owner-occupied or rented.

 

BACKGROUND


The focus of this chapter is the design and construction for rental and owner-occupied residential multi-family buildings.


As a starting point, it is important to define what we mean by multi¬family properties. In the broadest sense, a multi-family property is a housing development that comprises two or more self-contained dwelling units. In other words, a multi-family property can extend from a duplex to a large high-rise building.

 

The other consideration is ownership. Multi-family properties may be purpose-built rental apartments or privately owned, usually strata-titled' projects where units are owner-occupied or rented.

3

Multi-Unit Residential Neighbourhoods 
Neighbourhood Value Influences



 

Macro or Neighbourhood Level

  • Ease of access to workplaces
  • Public transportation options and service
  • Access to shopping centres, cultural facilities, and entertainment
  • Reputation of area: improving, declining, or stable
  • Residential atmosphere and appearance, and few or no incompatible commercial or industrial intrusions
  • Proximity to compatible and complementary commercial uses such as retail plazas, food stores, convenience centres, and medical and dental services
  • Local government planning policies that impact the supply of new multi-family developments

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Local Site Influences

 

• Proximity to open space, parks, lakes, rivers, or other natural features

• Exposure to natural light and noise

• Supply of vacant apartment sites likely to be developed that could make present accommodations more or less desirable

• Parking for tenants and guests

• Vacancy and tenant turnover rate

Local Site Influences

 

• Proximity to open space, parks, lakes, rivers, or other natural features

• Exposure to natural light and noise

• Supply of vacant apartment sites likely to be developed that could make present accommodations more or less desirable

• Parking for tenants and guests

• Vacancy and tenant turnover rate

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MOST IMPORTANT DESIGN FACTORS?

MOST IMPORTANT DESIGN FACTORS

The most important building design factors deal with the code requirements for structural integrity and the health and safety of the building occupants. 

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SECONDARY DESIGN FACTORS?

SECONDARY DESIGN FACTORS

Secondary factors, though still very important, deal with environmental considerations such as access to light, ventilation, and building envelope performance.

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DISCUSS AGE OF BUILDING AND
CONSTRUCTION METHOD

The age of the building is an indicator of the likely construction method.

 

For example, older low-rise multi-family buildings will typically be constructed with wood frame or concrete block. Concrete block is less common with contemporary construction due to its high labour require-ment and slow construction

8

Define and Explain Low Rise, Mid Rise and High Rise

There is no generally accepted definition for what is considered low-rise, mid-rise, or high-rise. However, for our purposes, a high-rise is defined as any multi-family building greater than eight floors in height. A low-rise will typically have four or fewer floors while a mid-rise is somewhere in between.

9

List 8 building code structural and envelope
considerations for multi-family property design and construction:

The following is a list of building code structural and envelope considerations for multi-family property design and construction:

1. Structural strength to resist loads of all kinds

2. Resistance to air movement

3. Resistance to heat movement

4. Resistance to vapour transmission

5. Adequate means of egress

6. Adequate light and ventilation

7. Resistance to spread of fire. For wood-frame dwellings, the resistance to spread of fire is achieved by three means:

i. firestopping;

ii. protecting the wood frame by cladding with fire-resistant materials; and

iii. fire-rated doors and closures in common areas.

When a frame building is above a certain size, then masonry or fire-resistant wall assemblies (e.g., layers of gypsum board) are required to divide the building into fire compartments.

8. Resistance to sound transmission. The main complaint of apartment dwellers is lack of soundproofing both between suites and to the common areas. In many cases, the wall systems shown can be improved by the use of "acousticaulk" or other form of perimeter sealant, poured concrete topped floors, and sound insulation between floors.

9. Protection against smoke penetration

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NOTES 
As the building area and number of stories increase, there are more stringent fire protection measures that have to be built into the construc­tion.

 

These measures include the use of sprinklers, the requirement of non-combustible construction for larger buildings, and the requirement that the floor assemblies and mezzanines and their supports must be fire-rated

NOTES 
As the building area and number of stories increase, there are more stringent fire protection measures that have to be built into the construc­tion.

 

These measures include the use of sprinklers, the requirement of non-combustible construction for larger buildings, and the requirement that the floor assemblies and mezzanines and their supports must be fire-rated

11

FIREWALLS

Firewalls are constructed of non-combustible materials, often masonry, and have prescribed fire-resistance ratings determined in the building code.

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LARGE MULTIFAMILY BUILDINGS

In multi-family buildings, when the building size exceeds the allowable size for wood-frame construction, an interior firewall will provide physical separation between the blocks of residential units; essentially dividing the building into two or more smaller areas. Each of these areas is considered a separate space for code require¬ments. 

13

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR FIREWALLS

The design requirement for firewalls will depend on the building occupancy, construction materials, and gross area. Use of sprinklers and increased use of fire-resistant materials will generally reduce the number of firewalls required.

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