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1

A building's superstructure includes all above-ground structural compo­nents. The superstructure can be considered an extension of the substructure above grade level.

 

This chapter will discuss common construction materials and structural systems used for superstructures of commercial and indus­trial buildings

A building's superstructure includes all above-ground structural compo­nents. The superstructure can be considered an extension of the substructure above grade level.

 

This chapter will discuss common construction materials and structural systems used for superstructures of commercial and indus­trial buildings

2

Engineers today are faced with the challenge of designing larger, more complex, functional, and durable superstructures than at any other time in history. Clients are demanding innovative architecture for buildings with superstructures that are lighter, more structurally efficient, and aesthet­ically pleasing. At the same time, there is pressure to manage the capital expense for new buildings, improve energy efficiency and environmental sustainability, and reduce long term operating costs.

To resolve these conflicting demands, the design team, which may include both architects and civil engineers, will translate the desired performance goals into a computerized model of design options. The sophistication of the modelling process will depend on the goals, the building's mass and complexity, and the modelling tools available to the design team.

Engineers today are faced with the challenge of designing larger, more complex, functional, and durable superstructures than at any other time in history. Clients are demanding innovative architecture for buildings with superstructures that are lighter, more structurally efficient, and aesthet­ically pleasing. At the same time, there is pressure to manage the capital expense for new buildings, improve energy efficiency and environmental sustainability, and reduce long term operating costs.

To resolve these conflicting demands, the design team, which may include both architects and civil engineers, will translate the desired performance goals into a computerized model of design options. The sophistication of the modelling process will depend on the goals, the building's mass and complexity, and the modelling tools available to the design team.

3

An _______ approach is now the norm for contemporary building design. Each building component's performance requirement is evaluated with the goal of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. This requires _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, such as the substructure, super­structure, mechanical systems, and interior design.

An integrated approach is now the norm for contemporary building design. Each building component's performance requirement is evaluated with the goal of the most efficient overall structure possible. This requires harmonizing the individual components, such as the substructure, super­structure, mechanical systems, and interior design.

4

Canada has a number of national codes that are intended to regulate building construction and operation. These codes are collectively known as _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . These Codes form the basis for all of Canada's provincial and municipal building codes.

Canada has a number of national codes that are intended to regulate building construction and operation.

 

These codes are collectively known as the National Model Construction Codes.' These Codes form the basis for all of Canada's provincial and municipal building codes.

5

The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ regulates the design and construction of new buildings and significant renovations for existing buildings.

The National Building Code (NBC) regulates the design and construction of new buildings and significant renovations for existing buildings.

6

The National Building Code (NBC) requirements are linked to goals for _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. It sets minimum performance standards for construction materials and systems, such as the building envelope.

The National Building Code (NBC) requirements are linked to goals for public safety and health, accessibility, fire prevention and structural protection of buildings. It sets minimum performance standards for construction materials and systems, such as the building envelope.

7

The NBC provides guidelines for the following building components and construction situations:

The NBC provides guidelines for the following building components and construction situations:

Fire protection, occupant safety, and accessibility

Structural design

Environmental separation

Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning

Plumbing services

Safety measures at construction sites and demolition sites

Housing and small buildings

8

The National Plumbing Code is organized in a similar fashion to the NBC.   The Plumbing Code requirements are linked to goals for public safety and health, and protection of buildings and facilities from water and sewage damage.There are three components to the safety objectives: ______, _____, and ________.

 There are three components to the safety objectives: safety in use, fire safety, and structural safety.

9

The ________ provides minimum fire safety requirements for buildings, structures, and areas where hazardous materials are used. The Code also provides direction on fire protection and fire prevention for building operations.

The National Fire Code provides minimum fire safety requirements for buildings, structures, and areas where hazardous materials are used. The Code also provides direction on fire protection and fire prevention for building operations.

10

The building enclosure has a great influence on the durability of the building. Well-designed and properly constructed wall and roof assemblies are critical to mitigating the damaging effects of moisture and humidity. Prolonged exposure to moisture will cause all materials to degrade more rapidly. Thus, when the building enclosure performs well, the structure is protected and the overall result is a more durable building

The building enclosure has a great influence on the durability of the building. Well-designed and properly constructed wall and roof assemblies are critical to mitigating the damaging effects of moisture and humidity. Prolonged exposure to moisture will cause all materials to degrade more rapidly. Thus, when the building enclosure performs well, the structure is protected and the overall result is a more durable building

11

________  provides fire protection provisions for new and significantly renovated buildings, whereas the ________ focuses on fire prevention for existing buildings and structures.

NBC provides fire protection provisions for new and significantly renovated buildings, whereas the National Fire Code focuses on fire prevention for existing buildings and structures.

12

The ________ is intended to complement NBC, by setting minimum requirements for energy efficiency for commercial and residen­tial buildings

The National Energy Code is intended to complement NBC, by setting minimum requirements for energy efficiency for commercial and residen­tial buildings

13

Force can be defined as any natural or human action (a push or a pull) that causes an object to move or undergo a shape change. There are five factors that influence the effect of forces that act on building structures:

1. Direction of the force

2. Magnitude of the force 

3. Location of the force 

4. Duration of the force 

5. Dynamic forces 

14

Magnitude of the force — normally measured as Newtons. One newton is the force required to support 100 grams of mass. One thousand Newtons (1 kN) is equivalent to approximately 220 pounds of force.

Magnitude of the force — normally measured as Newtons. One newton is the force required to support 100 grams of mass. One thousand Newtons (1 kN) is equivalent to approximately 220 pounds of force.

15

_________ are a special class of forces that occur as a series of regular or irregular cycles.

Dynamic forces — a special class of forces that occur as a series of regular or irregular cycles. Earthquakes, reciprocating machinery, human activity (e.g., walking, dancing), and wind are all examples of dynamic forces. 

16

When designing a structure, there are a number of load classifications defined in the building code that must be considered:

Dead loads

Occupancy or live loads

Snow loads

Wind loads

Temperature 

Earthquake loads

17

The forces that we consider in designing structures arise from natural phenomenon. In order to predict such forces, we must rely on statistical methods. A key concept in this regard is the return period, which is used to identify a period of time to be considered for a particular event to occur. For example, wind and snow loads used in structural designs are usually based on the 1 in 50-year event (also called a 50-year return period — equivalent to an event that has a 2% chance of occurring in any one year). Earthquake loads are based on a 2,500-year return period, which is equivalent to an event that will have a 2% chance of occurring in a 50-year period.

The forces that we consider in designing structures arise from natural phenomenon. In order to predict such forces, we must rely on statistical methods. A key concept in this regard is the return period, which is used to identify a period of time to be considered for a particular event to occur. For example, wind and snow loads used in structural designs are usually based on the 1 in 50-year event (also called a 50-year return period — equivalent to an event that has a 2% chance of occurring in any one year). Earthquake loads are based on a 2,500-year return period, which is equivalent to an event that will have a 2% chance of occurring in a 50-year period.

18

_________ is the force that pulls the material apart under stress. _________ causes elongation.

 

Tension

Tension is the force that pulls the material apart under stress. Tension causes elongation.

19

Another way to visualize a _______ force is to place the palms of your hands together and then slide one past the other.

Another way to visualize a shear force is to place the palms of your hands together and then slide one past the other.

20

A _____ force causes materials to distort.

A shear force causes materials to distort.

21

________ is a force that causes rotation or twisting. A _______ force must be applied perpendicular to the axis of rotation.

Torsion is a force that causes rotation or twisting. A torsional force must be applied perpendicular to the axis of rotation.

22

_______ is not a single force but rather a combination of forces including tension, compression, and shear that act simultaneously within a beam.

Bending is not a single force but rather a combination of forces including tension, compression, and shear that act simultaneously within a beam.

23

The three most important performance goals to consider when choosing a building's superstructure are as follows:

The three most important performance goals to consider when choosing a building's superstructure are as follows:

Economy of construction

Serviceability: occupant comfort and use of building

Durability: expected lifespan of the building and maintenance costs

24

____________ must also be considered. It is expected that occupancy, wind, and snow loads will act together on a structure. However, it is not expected that these loads will act at their full extent simultane­ously. Structural designers recognize that a wind storm will not occur at the same time as a major snow fall. This is accounted for using special load combination cases.

Load combinations must also be considered. It is expected that occupancy, wind, and snow loads will act together on a structure. However, it is not expected that these loads will act at their full extent simultane­ously. Structural designers recognize that a wind storm will not occur at the same time as a major snow fall. This is accounted for using special load combination cases.

25

Most materials used in the construction of building structures behave according to _ _ _ _ _ _ _  _ . This theory is based on the simple observation that all loads cause materials to deform.

Most materials used in the construction of building structures behave according to "Elastic Material Theory". This theory is based on the simple observation that all loads cause materials to deform.

26

Temperature — temperature effects have to be considered. Materials will expand and contract and if not accounted for can result in large forces particularly in long structures. Often buildings will contain _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to account for such movements in structures that arise due to changes in temperature.

Temperature — temperature effects have to be considered. Materials will expand and contract and if not accounted for can result in large forces particularly in long structures. Often buildings will contain expansion joints to account for such movements in structures that arise due to changes in temperature.

27

The forces that we consider in designing structures arise from natural phenomenon. In order to predict such forces, we must rely on statistical methods. A key concept in this regard is the return period, which is used to identify a period of time to be considered for a particular event to occur. For example, wind and snow loads used in structural designs are usually based on the 1 in 50-year event (also called a 50-year return period — equivalent to an event that has a 2% chance of occurring in any one year). Earthquake loads are based on a 2,500-year return period, which is equivalent to an event that will have a 2% chance of occurring in a 50-year period.

The forces that we consider in designing structures arise from natural phenomenon. In order to predict such forces, we must rely on statistical methods. A key concept in this regard is the return period, which is used to identify a period of time to be considered for a particular event to occur. For example, wind and snow loads used in structural designs are usually based on the 1 in 50-year event (also called a 50-year return period — equivalent to an event that has a 2% chance of occurring in any one year). Earthquake loads are based on a 2,500-year return period, which is equivalent to an event that will have a 2% chance of occurring in a 50-year period.

28

_____ is a force that causes rotation or twisting. A ________ force must be applied perpendicular to the axis of rotation.

Torsion is a force that causes rotation or twisting. A torsional force must be applied perpendicular to the axis of rotation.

29

Buildings must be designed to resist the calculated loads that are imposed upon them. The building as a whole is an interconnected network of structural elements that create a ________ such that loads are carried into the _________ and ultimately into the ground.

Buildings must be designed to resist the calculated loads that are imposed upon them. The building as a whole is an interconnected network of structural elements that create a load path such that loads are carried into the substructure and ultimately into the ground.

30

_____________ such as those caused by wind or snow can occur during construction. Buildings that are partially constructed may require temporary bracing because portions of the building may be susceptible to collapse. For example, in a pre-cast tilt-up building wall panels must be supported with temporary shoring posts before the roof is installed.

Environmental loads such as those caused by wind or snow can occur during construction. Buildings that are partially constructed may require temporary bracing because portions of the building may be susceptible to collapse. For example, in a pre-cast tilt-up building wall panels must be supported with temporary shoring posts before the roof is installed.