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Flashcards in Buxton Exam 1 Deck (20)
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1
Q

What are PAMPs?

A

Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns

Pathogens have their own molecules not found in mammal cells and so the immune system recognizes these as invaders

2
Q

What are PRRs?

A

Pattern Recognition Receptors

The are on the host cell and bind to PAMPs

3
Q

What are the characteristics of extracellular PAMPs?

A

Bacterial cell wall molecules
Flagellin
Bacterial cell external features
Elicit inflammation

4
Q

What are the characteristics of endosomal membrane bound PAMPs?

A

Microbial nucleic acids

Elicit antiviral immune response to T cell stimulation

5
Q

What are the characteristics of cytoplasmic PAMPs?

A
Bacterial peptidoglycans
Viral RNA
Elict antivrial immune response/ T-cell stimulation
NOD-like receptors
RIG-like receptors
6
Q

Describe toll-like receptor targets; TLR-1 and TLR-2

A

Located on plasma membrane
Bacterial cell - lipoprotein
Parasites - membrane protein

7
Q

Describe toll-like receptor targets; TLR-2 and TLR-6

A

Located in plasma membrane
Gram (+) bacterial cell wall - peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid
Fungal cell walls - zymosan

8
Q

Describe toll-like receptor targets; TLR-3

A

Located on phagosome membrane

Viruses - double stranded RNA

9
Q

Describe toll-like receptor targets; TLR-4

A

Located on the plasma membrane
Gram (-) bacterial cell walls - LPS
Viral envelope proteins
Fungal mannans

10
Q

Describe toll-like receptor targets; TLR-5

A

Located on the plasma membrane

Bacterial flagella - flagellar proteins

11
Q

Describe toll-like receptor targets; TLR-7 and TLR-8

A

Located on the pahgosome membrane

Viruses - single stranded RNA

12
Q

Describe toll-like receptor targets; TLR-9

A

Located on the pahgosome membrane

Bacterial and viral DNA - CpG sites (unmethlyated)

13
Q

What does type 1 interferon act on and how?

A

Acts on viral replication of its nucleic acids by inhibiting transcription of viral mRNA
Binds to its receptor on the cell surface sending a signal to begin synth of viral-inhibitory proteins

14
Q

Follicle

A

Site of B-cell localization and proliferation

In outer cortex

15
Q

Primary follicles

A

Dense and dormant

16
Q

Secondary follicles

A

Pale central germinal center and are active

Produce plasma cells

17
Q

Medulla

A

Consists of medullary cords (closely packed lymphocytes and contain reticular cells and macrophages) and medullary sinuses

18
Q

How do medullary sinuses communicate?

A

With efferent lymphatics and contain reticular cells and macrophages

19
Q

Paracortex

A

Houses T cell region of cortex between follicles and medulla

Contains high endothelial cenules through which T and B cells enter from the blood

20
Q

Which area of a lymph node is poorly developed in DiGeorge syndrome?

A

Paracortex