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Flashcards in Buzz Words 3 Deck (94):
1

Interferon Gamma effect on lungs with infections

Pulmonary cavitations secondary to tuberculosis
-Granuloma formation

2

Transforming Growth Factor-bets

Scar formation after injury and plays a role in fibrosis seen with chronic inflammation

3

HIV, multiple ring-enhancing lesions, seizures

Cerebral Toxoplasmosis

4

Treatment for Cerebral Toxoplasmosis

Pyrimenthamine and sulfadiazine

5

Astrocyte CNS Tumor

Glioblastoma multiforme

6

Test to screen Cystic-fibrosis related diabetes?

OGTT

7

Glutamic acid to LYSINE

at position 6 in beta globin chain = Hemoglobin C disease; ly-C-ne

8

Glutamic acid to VALINE

at position 6 in beta globin chain = Sickle Cell Disease

VA-SICKLE-INE

9

Hydrophobic interaction among hemoglobin molecules

Sickle Cell Disease
HbS has a hydrophobic pocket because of the glu-val

10

Impaired oxygen unloading of hemoglobin

Carboxyhemoglobin
due to an allosteric change that increases the affinity of the remaining 3 oxygen-binding sites

11

Location of the SA node

Right atrium near
SUPERIOR VENA CAVA

12

Location of the AV Node

Right Atrium near
the SEPTAL CUSP OF THE TRICUSPID VALVE

13

Hematoma over mastoid process + Periorbital ecchymoses (+ cleat otorrhea)

basilar skull fracture

14

Parasthesia with orbital floor fracture

numbness of upper cheek, upper lip, upper gingiva secondary to infraorbital (CN V) damage

15

Abdominal organ supplied by an artery of the foregut even though the organ itself is not a foregut derivative

Spleen
from the mesoderm of the dorsal mesentery
splenic artery from the celiac trunk

16

S3 and S4 are best heard..

with the bell of the stethoscope over the cardiac apex while the patient is in the left lateral decubitus position and listening at end expiration (decrease lung volume and bring heart closer to the chest wall)

17

MOA of Oseltamivir in Treatment of Influenza

Inhibits virion particle release
Neuraminidase inhibitor

neuraminidase is required for the release of virus from infected cells and for the spread of virus within the respiratory track; reducies spread of virus to other host cells.

18

Last to change in normal respiratory mucosa from trachea to alveolar ducts

(Cartilage/Cilia/Goblet Cells/Mucous Glands/Serous Glands)

CILIA!!!

19

Genetic Testing: Analyze for the presence of mRNA

(to determine whether a gene is being TRANSCRIBED)

Northern Blot

20

Genetic Testing: Analyze for the presence of DNA

Southern Blot

21

Genetic Testing: Analyze for the presence of Protein

(to determine whether a gene is being EXPRESSED)

Western Blot

22

Genetic Testing: Analyze for the presence of DNA-bound protein

SouthWestern Blot

23

Testing: Test commonly employed to measure the amount of a protein in body fluids

ELISA
Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay

24

Progressive motor weakness over the course of the day;

Myasthenia gravis

25

Decreased compound muscle action potential amplitude on electromyography with repeated excitation

Myasthenia gravis

26

Myasthenia gravis is antibodies against what?

postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

27

Step in collagen synthesis impaired in Ehlers-Danlos

N terminal propeptide removal defect

impaired peptide removal results in the formation of soluble collagen that does not properly crosslink

28

Microbio Test: Selective medium containing Vancomycin, Colistin, Nystatin, and Trimethoprim

Thayer-Martin Medium to identify Neisseria

29

What is the Chemoreceptor trigger zone that induces vomiting

Area Postrema

30

Where is the chemoreceptor trigger zone?

Dorsal surface of the medulla at the caudal end of the 4th ventricle

31

Damage to the nerves within the fascia of the prostate can cause

Erectile dysfunction
(Cavernous Nerves)

32

Cremasteric reflex
What nerve?

Genitofemoral Nerve

33

Fecal incontinence, Decreased penile sensation, External Urethral Sphincter Paralysis
What nerve damaged?

Pudendal Nerve

34

Polyuria:
Serum Sodium - HIGH
Urine osmolality after water deprivation - NO CHANGE/MILD INCREASE
Urine osmolality after vasopressin injection - LARGE INCREASE

Central Diabetes insipidus

35

Polyuria:
Serum Sodium - HIGH
Urine osmolality after water deprivation - NO CHANGE/MILD INCREASE
Urine osmolality after vasopressin injection - MILD INCREASE

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

36

Polyuria:
Serum Sodium - LOW
Urine osmolality after water deprivation - INCREASE
Urine osmolality after vasopressin injection - NO ADDITIONAL INCREASE

Primary polydypsia

37

Polyuria:
Serum Sodium - NORMAL
Urine osmolality after water deprivation - INCREASE
Urine osmolality after vasopressin injection - NO ADDITIONAL INCREASE

Normal

38

circulating immune complexes, pediatric disease

Henoch schonlein purpura

IgA antigen immune complexes

39

disseminated purpura

meningococcemia or disseminated gonococcus

40

purpura limited to the lower extremities

Henoch schonlein purpura

41

Nerve injury common from abdominal retractors during laparotomy (psoas muscle)

Genitofemoral nerve --> labial/scrotal anesthesia

42

Nerve injury common during closure of Pfannensteil skin incisions (eg Cesarean section)

Iliohypogastric nerce --> burning pain and paresthesias

43

Nerve injury common during retroperitoneal pelvic lymph node dissection

Obturator Nerve --> loss of medial thigh sensation and inability to adduct the thigh

44

Pudendal nerve block markers

medial to ischial spine, through the sacrospinous ligament

45

Antifungal
Binds ergosterol
Pore Formation

Amphotericin B

46

Antifungal
Inhibits both DNa and RNA in fungal cells

Flucytosine

47

Antifungal
Binds microtubules and inhibits mitosis

Griseofulvin

48

Antifungal
Inhibits ergosterol synthesis

Azoles
and Terbinafine

49

Tumor Lysis Syndrome
Increased uric acid
Uric acid becomes stones because of ____

acidic environments (low pH)
e.g. distal tubules and collecting ducts

50

Biliary tract disease, cholangiocarcinoma
Parasite?

Clonorchis sinensis

51

Brain cysts, seizures
Parasite?

Taenia solium

52

Hematuria, Squamous cell bladder cancer
Parasite?

Schistosoma haematobium

53

Liver (hydatid) cysts
Parasite?

Echinococcus granulosum

54

Microcytic anemia
Parasite?

Ancylostoma
Necator

55

Myalgias, Periorbital edema
Parasite?

Trichinella spiralis

56

Perianal pruritus
Parasite?

Enterobius

57

Portal hypertension
Parasite?

Schistosoma mansoni
Schistosoma japonicum

58

Vitamin B12 Deficiency
Parasite?

Diphyllobothrium latum

59

Receptors used by CMV?

Integrins (heparin sulfate)

60

Receptors used by EBV?

CD21 (B lymphocytes)

61

Receptors used by HIV?

CCR5, CD4, CXCR4

62

Receptors used by Parvovirus B19?

P antigen on RBCs

63

Receptors used by Rabies?

Nicotinic AChR

64

Receptors used by Rhinovirus?

ICAM-1

65

Exposure to air contaminated by animal waste (e.g. farms) --> pneumonia, thrombocytopenia

Q Fever
Coxiella burnetii

66

Pathogenicity: Activation of Electrolyte Transport

Irreversible activation of Gs
Vibrio Cholerae

67

Pathogenicity: Blockade of Neurotransmitter Release

Blockade of ACh - Clostridium botulinum

Blockade of GABA and Glycine - Clostridium tetani

68

Pathogenicity: Cellular Membrane Disruption

Phospholipase/Lecithenase - Clostridium perfringens

69

Pathogenicity: Impairment of Protein Synthesis

Inhibition of protein syntheisis by ADP-ribosylation of EF-2
Diphtheria Toxin
Corynebacterium diphtheriae

70

Pathogenicity: Widespread T Cell activation

Superantigen
Staph - Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin

71

Pathogenicity: Actin depolymerization

Clostridium difficile
Toxin B --> pseudomembranous colitis

72

Pathogenicity; plasminogen activator

Streptokinase - Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Strep)

73

Food poisoning from: Reheated rice

Bacillus cerues

74

Food poisoning from: Improperly canned foods (toxin) / honey (spores)

Clostridium botolinum

75

Food poisoning from:
Reheated meat

Clostridium perfringens

76

Food poisoning from:
Undercooked meat

E Coli O157:H7

77

Food poisoning from:
Deli meats, soft cheeses

Listeria monocytogenes

78

Food poisoning from:
Poultry, meat, and eggs

Salmonella

79

Food poisoning from:
Meats, mayonnaise, custard

Staphylococcus aureus

80

Food poisoning from:
Contaminated seafood

Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Vibrio vulnificus

81

Bloody diarrhea, liver abscess

Entamoeba histolytica

82

Bloody diarrhea, pseudoappendicitis, day care outbreak

Yersinia enterolitica

83

Cave exploration in Ohio

Histoplasma capsulatum

84

Recent travel to Arizona

Coccidioides immitis

85

Pigeon droppings

Cryptococcus neoformans

86

buy AT 30
CCEL at 50

Aminoglycosides (gentamicin, neomycin, amikacin, tobramycin, streptomycin)
Tetracycline (doxycycline)

Chloramphenicol
Clindamycin
Erythromycin (Macrolides)
Linezolid

87

Cowdry Type A inclusions

HSV

88

Temporal Lobe Encephalitis

HSV

89

Pareventricular Subependyma encephalitis

CMV

90

Greatly enlarged oligodendrocyte nuclei with glassy amorphic viral inclusions

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) / JC Virus

91

Microglial nodules containing multinucleated giant cells

chronic HIV encephalitis

92

Hypoglycemia but NO acetoacetate after prolonged fasting

Hypoketotic Hypoglycemia - either Primary Carnitine Deficiency or Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

93

Mushrooms that cause hepatotoxicity because alpha amanitin inhibits...

RNA polymerase II -- mRNA

94

Promoter region : Site where RNA polymerase II bind

TATA box