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Flashcards in Buzz Words Deck (100):
1

Bitemporal hemianopsia

Pituitary adenoma

2

Upper quadrantanopsia

Temporal Lobe Stroke (Meyer's Loop)

3

Hypocalcemia, Hyperphophatemia

Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
(Elevated PTH)

4

Susceptible to Bacitracin
PYR Positive
Bacteria?

Group A Strep

5

Bile Soluble bacteria

Strep Pneumoniae

6

Grows in hypertonic saline
PYR Positive
Bacteria?

Enterococci

7

Beta Hemolitic
PYR Negative
Bacteria?

Group B Strep

8

Cardiolipin, Lecithin, Cholesterol
Lab Test?

VDRL, Treponemal Test

9

Replaces Valine with Phenylalanine at 617 position

Polycythemia Vera
(Makes hematopoietic cells become more sensitive to growth factors)

10

Chorioretinitis, Hydrocephalus, Intracranial Calcification
Newborn

Toxoplasmosis
(Obligate Intracellular Protozoa)

11

Hydrops Fetalis
Newborn, ds DNA virus

Parvovirus

12

Deafness, Periventricular Calcification, Petechiae
Newborn, ds RNA virus

Cytomegalovirus

13

Blueberry Muffin, Deafness
Newborn, ss RNA virus

Rubella

14

Limb Hypoplasia, Cutaneous scarring
Newborn, ds DNA virus

Varicella Zoster Virus

15

Formula for Net Filtration Pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure - Osmotic Pressure
Glomerulus - Bowman's Capsule

"Hoes before Bows"

16

Gram positive rods
Medusa Head

Bacillus anthracis

17

Gram positive rods
Antiphagocytic D-glutamate capsule

Bacillus anthracis

18

Intracellular polyphosphate granules
Bacteria?

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

19

Peritrichous flagella
bacteria?

Proteus mirabilis

20

IgG binding outer membrane
bacteria?

Staph. aureus
(Protein A)

21

Valine for Glutamic Acid in the 6th Codon
Disease?

Sickle Cell Disease

22

Phenylalanine DELETION (F508)
Disease?

Cystic Fibrosis

23

Na K 2Cl Symporter

Furosemide
Ascending Loop of Henle
Increase NaCl and Fluid EXCRETION

24

Painful Genital Ulcers

H. ducreyii (deep, purulent)
HSV (superficial)

25

Painless Genital Ulcers

Syphilis (single, resolves)
Klebsiella granulomatis (progressive, inguinal LN)

26

Increased endolymph volume in the inner ear

Meniere's Disease
(Hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo)

27

Mass lesion at the cerebellopontine angle

Acoustic Neuroma
(progressive hearing loss; affects CN 6 , 7, 8)

28

Positive test, with disease

Sensitivity

29

Negative Test, without disease

Specificity

30

Antagonism of Dopamine D2 Receptors
MOA of what class of drugs?

Antipsychotics, First Generation
ex: Haloperidol

31

Antagonism of Serotoning 5HT2 Receptors
MOA of what class of drugs?

Antipsychotics, Second Generation

32

Pancreatic Tumor
Low Blood Glucose
Signs of Hypoglycemia
What Cell Type?
(Alpha, Beta, Delta)

Beta
Insulinoma

33

Pancreatic Tumor
High blood glucose (Diabetes)
Dermatitis (necrolytic migratory erythema)
DVT, depression
(Alpha, Beta, Delta)

Alpha
Glucagonoma

34

Steroid secreting cells of the adrenal gland.
Cell type origin?

Adrenal Cortex = Mesoderm

35

ANS/Chromaffin Cells/Epinephrine secreting cells of the adrenal gland.
Cell type origin?

Adrenal Medulla = Neural Crest

36

Adenohypophysis / Anterior Pituitary
Cell Type Origin?

Ectoderm
from the oral ectoderm of the rathke's pouch

37

Neurohypophyisis / Posterior Pituitary
Cell Type Origin?

Neuroectoderm
from the neuroectoderm of the diencephalon

38

Thyroid gland follicular cells
Cell Type Origin?

Endoderm

39

Antagonism of sodium channels
MOA of what class of drugs?

Anti-epileptic drugs
ex: Carbamazepine

40

Antagonism of Monoamine Oxidase
MOA of what class of drugs?

MAOIs - used for treatment of treatment-resistant depression

41

Potentiates effect of endogenous GABA
MOA of what class of drugs?

Benzodiazepines

42

Give 3 things that can damage/impair the Left Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve

1. RHD / Mitral Valve / Increased LA Size
2. Thyroid Surgery
3. Lung Cancer

43

GnRH: Hypothalamus :: LH: Anterior Pituitary :: Testosterone: ______

Leydig Cells, Testes

44

GnRH: Hypothalamus :: FSH: Anterior Pituitary :: Inhibin: ______

Sertoli Cells, Seminiferous Tubules

45

A2 to opening snap time interval

Assesses the degree of MITRAL STENOSIS

46

S3

Ventricular Volume Overload; Right Sided Heart Failure

47

S4

Pumping into a Stiff ventricle; Right Sided Heart Failure

48

Block NMDA receptors in hippocampal neurons
Illicit Drug?
Anesthetic?
Dementia meds?
Antiepileptic?

Illicit Drug: PCP
Anesthetic: Ketamine
Antiepileptic: Felbamate
Dementia Meds: Memantine

49

Downregulates calcium current in thalamic neurons
MOA of what drug?

Ethosuximide
(absence seizures)

50

Upregulates Chloride currents in CNS
MOA of what drug?

Benzodiazepines

51

Inhibit synaptic acetylcholinesterase in cortical neurons
MOA of what drug?

Donepezile
(Alzheimer's )

52

Axetazolamide
Tubule site of action?

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

53

HCTZ
Tubule site of action?

Distal Convoluted Tubule

54

Mannitol
Tubule site of action?

Descending Loop of Henle

55

Furosemide
Tubule Site of Action

Ascending Loop of Henle

56

Amiloride
Tubule site of action?

Collecting Duct
(Sodium Channel Blocker/Potassium Sparing Diuretic)

57

Spirinolactone / Eplerone
Tubule site of action?

Collecting Duct
(Aldosterone REceptor Antagonist / Potassium Sparing Diuretic)

58

Holosystolic murmur
3 pathologies that you will think of?

Tricuspid regurgitation - will increase with respiration
Mitral Regurgitation - will increase with handgrip, decrease with inspiration
VSD - will increase with handgrip

59

Inspiration will increase what murmurs?

Right-sided murmurs
(ex: TR, PR)

60

Mild hypercalcemia, Moderately increased PTH, Urinary Calcium is low, normal Vit D levels

Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia
Defective calcium sensing receptor (G-protein coupled receptors)

61

Steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, Vit D
What type of receptors?

INTRACELLULAR
receptor with a dna binding domain

62

Acetylcholine, Serotonin, NMDA, GABA
What type of receptors?

TRANSMEMBRANE LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL

63

Insulin, Insulin-like GF
What type of receptors?

Transmembrane receptor associated with intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE activity

64

GH, Prolactin, Erythropoeitin
What type of receptors?

Transmembrane receptor causing activation of JAK-STAT pathway

65

Basophilc stippling

Lead intoxication

66

Heinz Bodies

G6PD

67

Howell-Jolly Bodies

post-splenectomy; absent or decreased splenic function

68

Ring sideroblasts

Heme Synthesis Problem
Can be seen in lead intoxication BUT SEEN IN BONE MARROW ASPIRATE not peripheral smear

69

Schistocytes

Sickle Cell, Hemolytic anemia

70

Virulence Factor: Intracellular existence

Chlamydia, Ricketsiae, Legionella, Listeria

71

Virulence Factor: Outer Polysaccharide Capsule

Strep
Haemophilus Influenzae
Neisseria

72

Virulence Factor: Presence of Protein A in the cell wall

Staph Aureus

73

Virulence Factor: Release of Exotoxins

Staph aureus, Botolinum, Diphtheriae, Tetanus, Pertussis

74

Virulence Factor: Synthesis of an Extracellular Polysaccharide Matrix

Staph epidermidis

75

CNS Mass: above the sellar diaphragm

Craniopharyngoma
(hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction)

76

CNS Mass: Dorsal Midbrain

Germ Cell Tumor
usually Pineal Gland
(inc ICP, parinaud syndrome)

77

CNS Mass: lateral cerebral convexity or parasagittal convexity

Meningioma

78

CNS Mass: Posterior Fossa

Medulloblastoma

79

Urge Incontinence
Etiology?

Detrussor muscle hyperactivity

80

Overflow incontinence
Etiology?

Bladder Outlet Obstruction

81

Stress Incontinence
Etiology?

Decreased Urethral Sphincter Tone

82

Rejuct null, null is true

Type I Error
Say there is a difference but there is none

83

Don't reject null, Null is False

Type II Error
Say there is no difference but there actually is

84

Statistical alpha

Type I error
Probability of a result due to chance alone

85

Statistical Beta

Type II error
Power = 1 minus beta

86

Mode of infection: absorption through skin on feet

Strongyloides stercoralis

87

Mode of infection: Exposure to infected stool

Taenia solium

88

Mode of infection: handling of cat litter

Toxoplasma gondii

89

Mode of infection: Inhalation of fungal spores

Histoplasma
Blastomyces

90

Mode of infection: Scratch from a Cat

Bartonella henselae

91

Diabetes Drug MOA:
Decrease insulin resistance by increasing GLUT 4 and increasing adiponectin

PPAR -Y

92

Lactose fermenter, Indole positive

E. Coli

93

Fast Lactose fermenter, indole negative

klebsiella, enterobacter

94

Non-lactose fermenter, oxidase positive

pseudomonas

95

non-lactose fermenter, oxidase negative, h2s positive

proteus, salmonella, yersinia

96

non-lactose fermenter, oxidase negative, h2s negative

shigella

97

Migratory thrombophlebitis

Trosseau syndrome; visceral carcinoma

98

Seborheic keratosis

Leser Trelat Sign, GI malignancy

99

Antiarrhythmics that can cass QT prolongation

Quinidine
Sotalol
(Slass IA and III)

100

Antibiotiocs that can cause QT Prolongation

Macrolides, Fluoroquinolones