Flashcards in By-products Of Metabolism Deck (12):
How are ROS produced?
When an electron in the ETC prematurely reduces an oxygen to produce O2-
What does superoxide dismutase do? (SOD)
Catalyses the reaction of superoxide radicals together to form hydrogen peroxide
Which enzyme breaks down hydrogen peroxide and what does it break it down into?
Oxygen and water
How does glutathione reduce ROS
The thiol (-SH) group in cysteine can donate its H and therefore act as a reducing agent.
What is the oxidised form of glutathione?
Glutathione disulphide (GSSG)
How is glutathione disulphide converted back to glutathione?
NADPH reduces it.
Which two vitamins are antioxidants?
C and E
Which drugs in particular are strong oxidising agents?
What is oxidative stress?
When antioxidant levels are low
What can oxidative stress lead to?
How are ROS involved in immunity?
Neutrophils and monocytes can undergo oxidative bursts, releasing a large quantity of ROS.
This kills any surrounding bacteria or fungal cells.