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Lizzie's Metabolism > Energy Expenditure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Energy Expenditure Deck (32):
0

What are the three components of of daily energy expenditure?

Basal Metabolic Rate
Voluntary physical activity
Diet-induced thermogenesis

1

What is the daily energy expenditure of a male and of a female?

Male - 12,000 kJ
Female - 9,500 kJ

2

What is the BMR

The basal energy required to maintain life

3

Why is fat an essential part of our diet?

Higher energy yield than carbohydrates
Absorption of lipid-soluble vitamins
Need essential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body for cell membranes and regulatory precursors

4

When is nitrogen balance positive?

In pregnant women and children

5

When is nitrogen balance negative?

Starvation and tissue-wasting diseases

6

List some factors that can affect BMR.

Body weight
Gender
Environmental temperature
Factors tending to change body temperature eg fever

7

What should be the daily intake of protein in a male?

~35g

8

List the essential components of a diet.

Fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, fibre, water, protein

9

What is marasmus caused by?

Protein-energy deficiency

10

Is oedema seen in marasmus?

No

11

What is kwashiorkor caused by?

Protein deficiency

12

How is BMI calculated?

Weight (kg) / height squared (m)

13

What BMI value is classified as underweight?

<18.5

14

What BMI range is classified as overweight?

25-29.9

15

What range of BMI is classified as obese?

30-34.9

16

What BMI is classified as severely obese?

35+

17

What is homeostasis?

The control of internal environments within set limits

18

What is malnutrition?

Any condition caused by an imbalance between what an individual eats and what the individual requires to maintain health

19

What is cell metabolism?

The highly integrated of chemical reactions that occur in cells

20

What does cell metabolism provide?

Energy for ATP
Building block molecules for synthesis of cell components
Organic precursor molecules
Biosynthetic reducing power (NADH)

21

What is obesity?

Excess body fat which has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse affect on health leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems.

22

Which process is reductive? Catabolism or anabolism?

Anabolism is reductive

23

What is the biological role of ATP and ADP?

They couple the free energy released in catabolism of fuel molecules to the energy requiring activities of the cell.

24

Is ATP a high or a low energy signal?

A high energy signal because it shows that the cell has enough energy for its immediate needs

25

List some high energy signals

ATP, NADH, NADPH, FAD2H

26

List some low energy signals

ADP and AMP

27

When is creatine phosphate produced?

When ATP levels are high. Produced from creatine

28

How is creatinine produced?

When creatine and creatine phosphate undergo non-enzymatic changes.

29

What can creatinine in the urine be used to measure?

Can indicate skeletal muscle mass and any active muscle wasting.
Also used to measure kidney function

30

Is the removal of an H+ reduction or oxidation?

Oxidation

31

Why are proteins essential in the diet?

Provide essential amino acids