Flashcards in Energy Expenditure Deck (32):
What are the three components of of daily energy expenditure?
Basal Metabolic Rate
Voluntary physical activity
What is the daily energy expenditure of a male and of a female?
Male - 12,000 kJ
Female - 9,500 kJ
What is the BMR
The basal energy required to maintain life
Why is fat an essential part of our diet?
Higher energy yield than carbohydrates
Absorption of lipid-soluble vitamins
Need essential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body for cell membranes and regulatory precursors
When is nitrogen balance positive?
In pregnant women and children
When is nitrogen balance negative?
Starvation and tissue-wasting diseases
List some factors that can affect BMR.
Factors tending to change body temperature eg fever
What should be the daily intake of protein in a male?
List the essential components of a diet.
Fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, fibre, water, protein
What is marasmus caused by?
Is oedema seen in marasmus?
What is kwashiorkor caused by?
How is BMI calculated?
Weight (kg) / height squared (m)
What BMI value is classified as underweight?
What BMI range is classified as overweight?
What range of BMI is classified as obese?
What BMI is classified as severely obese?
What is homeostasis?
The control of internal environments within set limits
What is malnutrition?
Any condition caused by an imbalance between what an individual eats and what the individual requires to maintain health
What is cell metabolism?
The highly integrated of chemical reactions that occur in cells
What does cell metabolism provide?
Energy for ATP
Building block molecules for synthesis of cell components
Organic precursor molecules
Biosynthetic reducing power (NADH)
What is obesity?
Excess body fat which has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse affect on health leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems.
Which process is reductive? Catabolism or anabolism?
Anabolism is reductive
What is the biological role of ATP and ADP?
They couple the free energy released in catabolism of fuel molecules to the energy requiring activities of the cell.
Is ATP a high or a low energy signal?
A high energy signal because it shows that the cell has enough energy for its immediate needs
List some high energy signals
ATP, NADH, NADPH, FAD2H
List some low energy signals
ADP and AMP
When is creatine phosphate produced?
When ATP levels are high. Produced from creatine
How is creatinine produced?
When creatine and creatine phosphate undergo non-enzymatic changes.
What can creatinine in the urine be used to measure?
Can indicate skeletal muscle mass and any active muscle wasting.
Also used to measure kidney function
Is the removal of an H+ reduction or oxidation?