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Flashcards in C&M term 2 Deck (106):
1

Root value femoral nerve

L2-4

2

Root value obturator nerve

L2-L4

3

Root value sciatic nerve

L4-S3

4

Internal iliac branches

Sup gluteal
Obturator
Inf gluteal

5

What passes through the adductor hiatus?

Femoral artery and vein

6

What runs in the adductor canal?

Femoral artery, vein and branches of the femoral nerve

7

What does the femoral artery become after the adductor hiatus?

Popliteal artery

8

What branch of the popliteal artery pierces the interosseus membrane to run anteriorly?

Anterior tibial

9

Where do the plantar arteries arise from?

Posterior tibial

10

Where do the dorsalis pedis arteries arise from?

Anterior tibial, contribution from perforating branch of the fibular

11

Posterior thigh innervation

Sciatic- tibial division except BFSH is c fibular

12

Innervation plantar muscles foot

All lateral plantar except FDB, FHB, AbH, 1st lumbrical

13

Contents of pop foss

Popliteal artery and vein
Tibial nerve
Common fibular nerve
Short saphenous vein
Lymph

14

Dorsalis pedis is felt where?

Lateral to EHL tendon

15

PSIS what level?

S2 skin dimples

16

Level of bifurcation iliac arteries

S2

17

Appearance of T1 MRI

white is right (skull)

18

What is white in T2 mri?

Fluid

19

Bone and air are what colours in a CT?

Bone white air black

20

Part of thalamus of auditory pathway?

MGN

21

Part of thalamus of DC pathway?

VPL

22

Part of thalamus of sensory from head pathway?

VPM

23

Part of thalamus of visual pathway?

LGN

24

Part of thalamus of ST pathway?

VPL

25

Conductive deafness Rinnes test result?

Bone cnduction is louder

26

Sensorineural deafness rinnes test result

Normal

27

Conductive deafness Weber's test result?

Damaged ear is loudest

28

Sensorineural deafness weber's test result

Normal loudest

29

Normal hearing Rinne's result

Air louder than bone

30

Normal hearing Weber's test result

Same each side

31

Frequency of speech?

3,000 Hz

32

Lower part of the face is bilateral/ipsilateral/contralateral

Contralateral

33

Lateral medullary/wallenburg's syndrome involves occlusion of which artery?

Post inf cerebellar

34

Autonomic dysreflexia is?

HTN in established spinal injury patients

35

Maculae are made of?

Supporting cells surrounding hair cells that are innervated by utricular and saccular sensory nerve fubres. Hair cells have tufts of cilia that penetrate gelatinous otolithic membrane of CaCO3 crystals

36

Medial vestibular nucleus sgets information from what and goes to what?

From SSCs to MNs of neck/body to orientate head and stabilise retinal image (VO reflex)

37

Where does the lateral vestibulat nucleus get info from and where does it go?

From utricle and saccule, goes to cerebellum and limb motor neurons to maintain upright body posture

38

What is Meniere's syndrome

Pressure, earache, tinnitus and dizziness
Due to increased vol endolymph and rupturing of membranous labyrinth

39

What is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo?

CaCO3 crystals dislodged from otolith
Illusion of movement and disorientation, dizziness

40

\What is ototoxicity

damage to usually VC nerve from drugs/toxins

41

What do vestibular neuritis, brainstem carcinoma, infarction and haemorrhage all lead to?

Disrupted postural control

42

Where is a medulloblastoma, in whom does it occur and what symptoms?

Cerebellum, children
Postural instability as can't use info from utricles and saccules

43

Rods features?

Low acuity, can see in dark, slow response, achromatic

44

What is scotopic luminance?

Night time lighting- rods only

45

What is mesopic luminance?

Twilight- both

46

What is photopic luminance?

Daytime lighting- cones only

47

What is an anomalous trichromat?

Alternative perception of colour

48

What is a dichromat?

colour blind

49

What is the name for normal vision

Trichromat

50

What is the pigment in rod cells?

Rhodopsin

51

Is neurotransmitter released in light or dark?

Dark

52

3 types retinal ganglion cells

Magnocellular (M)
Parvocellular (P)
Non-M non-P type (K)

53

What do M type ganglion cells detect?

Movement

54

What do P type ganglion cells detect?

form and fine detail, colour

55

What do K type ganglion cells detect?

Colour

56

What is the most prevalent type of ganglion cell?

P type (90%)

57

Meissner's detects?

low freq vibration

58

Merkel detects?

Small forms and shape

59

Pacinian?

high freq vibration

60

Ruffini

Pressure

61

Which tactile receptors have a large receptive field?

Pacinian and Ruffini

62

Posterior parietal damage =?

Neglect, asteroagnosia, R+L confusion

63

Late pain is what type of fibre?

C

64

First pain is?

Alpha delta

65

Which modalities does Alpha delta fibres have

mechanical and thermal

66

Where are nociceptor cell bodies?

DRG

67

What do nociceptors travel up and down the spinal cord in before synapsing?

Zone of lissauer

68

Where do nociceptors synapse?

Dorsal horm (superficial laminae- 1 and 2- subs gel)

69

What is the neurotransmitter of nociceptors?

Glutamate

70

In high stimuli what is released at synapses?

Substance P

71

Where is perception of pain?

Thalamus

72

Where does localisation of pain occur?

Cortex

73

What is non painful stimulation fibre type?

Alpha beta

74

What are the 4 types of pain?

Chronic or acute
Nociceptive or neuropathic

75

Direct pathway of movement initiation involves which 4 structures

Cortex, striatum, GPi, thalamus (cortex again)

76

Indirect pathway involves which 6 structures?

Cortex, striatum, GPe, subthalamus, GPi, Thalamus (cortex again)

77

What is the role of substantia nigra and what does it release? where does it act?

Dopamine, acts on striatum
More initiation- excites direct pathway and inhibits indirect

78

Hyperkinsea/chorea would be damage to what?

Subthalamus, or inhibitory fibres from striatum to GP

79

function of the direct pathway?

facilitates wanted movement

80

Function of indirect pathway?

Inhibits unwanted movement

81

What lamina of the VGH do MNs synapse in?

9

82

Muscle tone involves interaction between which two things?

Spindles and alpha motor neurons

83

Is babinski sign U or L MN damage?

Upper

84

2 types of spindle fibres and what type of fibres

Bag- 1a (dynamic)
Chain- 1a and 2 (static)

85

What type of MN are spindle fibres innervated by?

gamma

86

What MN type is responsible for tension generation

alpha

87

Fibre type in golgi tendons

1b

88

What do golgi and spindle detect?

Golgi tension
Spindle stretch

89

Why do spindle need motor innervation

They adjust length in response to alpha

90

What does the myotatic stretch reflex involve?

Tap muscle tendon, 1a afferent synapses with alpha motor neuron in SC, homonymous muscle contracts
Also inhibition of antagonising muscle through interneuron

91

What does the inverse myotatic reflex involve?

Increased firing in 1b afferent
Inhibition via inhibitory neuron in SC
Alpha motor neuron- inhibition of homonymous muscle
(protective)

92

What does the crossed extensor/flexor withdrawal reflex involve?

Increased activity in alpha delta and C afferents
Ipsilateral flexors and contralateral extensors excitred
Ipsilateral extensors and contralateral flexors inhibited

93

Which reflex involves a change in muscle tension?

Inverse myotatic

94

Vestibulocerebellum function

Balance, constancy of visual fields

95

Spinocerebellum function

Posture and locomotion

96

Cerebrocerebellar function

Fine skilled movements of hands

97

What is the vestibulospinal pathway involved in? what nucleus?

Posture
Vestibular nucleus

98

What is the reticulospinal pathway involved in? Where in brain?

Voluntary movement, breathing, consciousness
Brainstem reticular formation

99

What is the rubrospinal pathway involved in? What nucleus?

Muscle tone
Red nucleus

100

What runs in the spinocerebellar tract?
Is this ipsilateral or contra?

Proprioception and other sensory informationfrom spinal cord (from spindles and golgi) into cerebellum (knows what muscles are currently doing) via ICP into spinocerebellum
Ipsilateral

101

What does the cerebrocerebellum recieve input from?
Is this ipsi or contralateral

What muscles are about to do- motor cortex via pontine nuclei (MCP)
-inferior olivary nucleus (ICP)
CONTRALATERAL

102

What is the output of the cerebellum?
Contra or ipsi?

To:
Motor cortex via thalamus
Reticular nuclei
Red nucleus
This crosses the midline (but recrosses when motor fibres cross at medullary pyramids so ipsilateral overall)

103

What is truncal ataxia\;

Inability to sit or stand without falling over
Vestibulocerebellar lesion, midline
Medulloblastoma

104

What is gait ataxia?

Lower limbs affected- gait staggering
Spinocerebellar lesion
Alcoholics

105

Cerebrocerebellar lesion =?

Intention tremor
Past pointing
adiadochokinesis
dysarthria
nystagmus

106

what is an output out of the ICP?

Efferents to neck and eye lower motor neurons