Flashcards in C&M term 2 Deck (106):
Root value femoral nerve
Root value obturator nerve
Root value sciatic nerve
Internal iliac branches
What passes through the adductor hiatus?
Femoral artery and vein
What runs in the adductor canal?
Femoral artery, vein and branches of the femoral nerve
What does the femoral artery become after the adductor hiatus?
What branch of the popliteal artery pierces the interosseus membrane to run anteriorly?
Where do the plantar arteries arise from?
Where do the dorsalis pedis arteries arise from?
Anterior tibial, contribution from perforating branch of the fibular
Posterior thigh innervation
Sciatic- tibial division except BFSH is c fibular
Innervation plantar muscles foot
All lateral plantar except FDB, FHB, AbH, 1st lumbrical
Contents of pop foss
Popliteal artery and vein
Common fibular nerve
Short saphenous vein
Dorsalis pedis is felt where?
Lateral to EHL tendon
PSIS what level?
S2 skin dimples
Level of bifurcation iliac arteries
Appearance of T1 MRI
white is right (skull)
What is white in T2 mri?
Bone and air are what colours in a CT?
Bone white air black
Part of thalamus of auditory pathway?
Part of thalamus of DC pathway?
Part of thalamus of sensory from head pathway?
Part of thalamus of visual pathway?
Part of thalamus of ST pathway?
Conductive deafness Rinnes test result?
Bone cnduction is louder
Sensorineural deafness rinnes test result
Conductive deafness Weber's test result?
Damaged ear is loudest
Sensorineural deafness weber's test result
Normal hearing Rinne's result
Air louder than bone
Normal hearing Weber's test result
Same each side
Frequency of speech?
Lower part of the face is bilateral/ipsilateral/contralateral
Lateral medullary/wallenburg's syndrome involves occlusion of which artery?
Post inf cerebellar
Autonomic dysreflexia is?
HTN in established spinal injury patients
Maculae are made of?
Supporting cells surrounding hair cells that are innervated by utricular and saccular sensory nerve fubres. Hair cells have tufts of cilia that penetrate gelatinous otolithic membrane of CaCO3 crystals
Medial vestibular nucleus sgets information from what and goes to what?
From SSCs to MNs of neck/body to orientate head and stabilise retinal image (VO reflex)
Where does the lateral vestibulat nucleus get info from and where does it go?
From utricle and saccule, goes to cerebellum and limb motor neurons to maintain upright body posture
What is Meniere's syndrome
Pressure, earache, tinnitus and dizziness
Due to increased vol endolymph and rupturing of membranous labyrinth
What is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo?
CaCO3 crystals dislodged from otolith
Illusion of movement and disorientation, dizziness
\What is ototoxicity
damage to usually VC nerve from drugs/toxins
What do vestibular neuritis, brainstem carcinoma, infarction and haemorrhage all lead to?
Disrupted postural control
Where is a medulloblastoma, in whom does it occur and what symptoms?
Postural instability as can't use info from utricles and saccules
Low acuity, can see in dark, slow response, achromatic
What is scotopic luminance?
Night time lighting- rods only
What is mesopic luminance?
What is photopic luminance?
Daytime lighting- cones only
What is an anomalous trichromat?
Alternative perception of colour
What is a dichromat?
What is the name for normal vision
What is the pigment in rod cells?
Is neurotransmitter released in light or dark?
3 types retinal ganglion cells
Non-M non-P type (K)
What do M type ganglion cells detect?
What do P type ganglion cells detect?
form and fine detail, colour
What do K type ganglion cells detect?
What is the most prevalent type of ganglion cell?
P type (90%)
low freq vibration
Small forms and shape
high freq vibration
Which tactile receptors have a large receptive field?
Pacinian and Ruffini
Posterior parietal damage =?
Neglect, asteroagnosia, R+L confusion
Late pain is what type of fibre?
First pain is?
Which modalities does Alpha delta fibres have
mechanical and thermal
Where are nociceptor cell bodies?
What do nociceptors travel up and down the spinal cord in before synapsing?
Zone of lissauer
Where do nociceptors synapse?
Dorsal horm (superficial laminae- 1 and 2- subs gel)
What is the neurotransmitter of nociceptors?
In high stimuli what is released at synapses?
Where is perception of pain?
Where does localisation of pain occur?
What is non painful stimulation fibre type?
What are the 4 types of pain?
Chronic or acute
Nociceptive or neuropathic
Direct pathway of movement initiation involves which 4 structures
Cortex, striatum, GPi, thalamus (cortex again)
Indirect pathway involves which 6 structures?
Cortex, striatum, GPe, subthalamus, GPi, Thalamus (cortex again)
What is the role of substantia nigra and what does it release? where does it act?
Dopamine, acts on striatum
More initiation- excites direct pathway and inhibits indirect
Hyperkinsea/chorea would be damage to what?
Subthalamus, or inhibitory fibres from striatum to GP
function of the direct pathway?
facilitates wanted movement
Function of indirect pathway?
Inhibits unwanted movement
What lamina of the VGH do MNs synapse in?
Muscle tone involves interaction between which two things?
Spindles and alpha motor neurons
Is babinski sign U or L MN damage?
2 types of spindle fibres and what type of fibres
Bag- 1a (dynamic)
Chain- 1a and 2 (static)
What type of MN are spindle fibres innervated by?
What MN type is responsible for tension generation
Fibre type in golgi tendons
What do golgi and spindle detect?
Why do spindle need motor innervation
They adjust length in response to alpha
What does the myotatic stretch reflex involve?
Tap muscle tendon, 1a afferent synapses with alpha motor neuron in SC, homonymous muscle contracts
Also inhibition of antagonising muscle through interneuron
What does the inverse myotatic reflex involve?
Increased firing in 1b afferent
Inhibition via inhibitory neuron in SC
Alpha motor neuron- inhibition of homonymous muscle
What does the crossed extensor/flexor withdrawal reflex involve?
Increased activity in alpha delta and C afferents
Ipsilateral flexors and contralateral extensors excitred
Ipsilateral extensors and contralateral flexors inhibited
Which reflex involves a change in muscle tension?
Balance, constancy of visual fields
Posture and locomotion
Fine skilled movements of hands
What is the vestibulospinal pathway involved in? what nucleus?
What is the reticulospinal pathway involved in? Where in brain?
Voluntary movement, breathing, consciousness
Brainstem reticular formation
What is the rubrospinal pathway involved in? What nucleus?
What runs in the spinocerebellar tract?
Is this ipsilateral or contra?
Proprioception and other sensory informationfrom spinal cord (from spindles and golgi) into cerebellum (knows what muscles are currently doing) via ICP into spinocerebellum
What does the cerebrocerebellum recieve input from?
Is this ipsi or contralateral
What muscles are about to do- motor cortex via pontine nuclei (MCP)
-inferior olivary nucleus (ICP)
What is the output of the cerebellum?
Contra or ipsi?
Motor cortex via thalamus
This crosses the midline (but recrosses when motor fibres cross at medullary pyramids so ipsilateral overall)
What is truncal ataxia\;
Inability to sit or stand without falling over
Vestibulocerebellar lesion, midline
What is gait ataxia?
Lower limbs affected- gait staggering
Cerebrocerebellar lesion =?