Flashcards in C1 Atomic structure and the periodic table Deck (62)
Give the state and colour of each of the halogens at room temperature.
Chlorine = Green gas
Bromine = Orange liquid
Iodine = Grey solid
(Iodine forms a purple vapour when it is warmed)
What special something do Group 0/ Noble gases have about their outer shell of electrons?
The outer shell of Group 0 is full which makes it both unreactive and very stable.
What is distillation used for ? A evaporating the liquid from a mixture to collect the solid. B the separation of a liquid from a mixture using evaporation then condensation. C the separation of solutes for analysis. D the removal of salt from water
Distillation is used for :B the separation of a liquid from a mixture using evaporation then condensation
Explain what we mean by subatomic particles
Each atom consists of a nucleus containing protons and neutrons, with electrons arranged around it in energy levels.
Why does chlorine push bromine out of potassium bromide?
In a displacement reaction, a less reactive element is displaced by a more reactive element. Chlorine is more reactive than Bromine.
Explain what we mean by filtration
Filtration is a method for separating an insoluble solid from a liquid. When a mixture of sand and water is filtered:the sand stays behind in the filter paper (it becomes the residue)the water passes through the filter paper (it becomes the filtrate)
Explain what we mean by a mixture.
A mixture is made from molecules of elements and compounds that are simply mixed together, without chemical bonds. Mixtures can be separated using techniques such as filtration, chromatography, evaporation and distillation.
Explain what we mean by an electron
Electrons are contained in shells around the nucleus. The total number of electrons is always the same as the number of protons in the nucleus, as shown in the diagram below.
Explain what we mean by electron configuration
The electrons in an atom occupy energy levels. These are also called shells. Each electron in an atom is found in a particular energy level. The lowest energy level (innermost shell) fills with electrons first. Each energy level can only hold a certain number of electrons before it becomes full. The first energy level can hold a maximum of two electrons, the second energy level a maximum of eight, and so on.
Explain what we mean by chemical formulae
The chemical formula of a compound tells you how many atoms of each element the molecule contains.
John Dalton was the first person to start sorting elements into a periodic table. How did he sort them?
John Dalton sorted elements into a periodic table by increasing atomic mass.
John Newlands noticed a pattern in elements that Dalton's had sorted by increasing atomic mass. What was that pattern?
John Newlands noticed that the eighth elements in Dalton's periodic table had similar properties.
Who discovered that electrons orbit the nucleus in shells?
Neils Bohr discovered that electrons orbit the nucleus in shells.
Explain what we mean by chromatography
Paper chromatography is a method for separating dissolved substances from one another. It is often used when the dissolved substances are coloured, such as inks, food colourings and plant dyes. It works because some of the coloured substances dissolve in the solvent used better than others, so they travel further up the paper.
How many electrons do Group 1 have in their outer shell?
Group 1 elements all have in 1 electron in their outer shell
Why does fractional distillation work?
Fractional distillation works because the liquids in the mixture have different boiling points.
What is chromatography used for?A to separate a solid from a liquid. B to separate out dissolved solids. C to separate a liquid from a solution. D to separate a mixture of liquids
Answer D: Chromatography is used to separate a mixture of liquids
What group is Cl in?
Cl is in Group 7
How many neutrons are there in 184W74
There are 110 neutrons in 184W74
How does paper chromatography work?
Paper chromatography works because some of the coloured substances dissolve in the solvent better than others, so they travel further up the paper.
Explain what we mean by an element.
An element is a substance that is made of only one sort of atom. There are about 100 different elements. These are shown in the periodic table, which is a chart with all the elements arranged in a particular way.
Why are alkali metals stored in oil?
Alkali metals are stored in oil to prevent them reacting with air.
Explain the difference between a compound and a mixture.
A mixture can be separated easily but because compounds contain elements which have reacted chemically they are very difficult to separate.
What are elements in group 7 called?
Elements in group 7 are called halogens
From the 3 sub atomic particles choose 2 which are the same size?
The electron is tiny but the proton and neutron are the same size.
Water has a boiling point of 100 °C. At what temperature does water evaporate?A 100 °CB temperatures above 100 °C onlyC temperatures above 0 °C onlyD water doesn’t evaporate
Water evaporates at A 100 °C
I have 2 electrons in my first shell and 3 electrons in my second shell. Which element am I?
I am Boron
How many protons or electrons are there in 56Fe26
There are 26 protons or electrons are in 56Fe26
Which 2 sub atomic particles have opposite charges which hold the atom together?
The electron is negative and the proton is positive