C14 Carboydrates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C14 Carboydrates Deck (56):
0

3 types of molecules that provide chemical energy to our cells?

lipids, amino acids, & carbohydrates

1

lipids

fats

2

amino acids

proteins

3

carbohydrates

sugars & starches

4

All carbs have the?

C=O and -OH groups

5

2 types of carbohydrates?

aldose & ketose

6

aldose

aldehyde group

7

ketose

ketone group

8

monosaccharides

single carbohydrate molecules

9

disaccharides

2 sugar linked together

10

oligosaccharides

2-10 linked sugars

11

polysacchardies

long sugar chains

12

common monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, & galactose

13

common disaccharides

sucrose & lactose

14

sucrose is?

glucose and fructose =table sugar

15

lactose is?

glucose & galactose

16

glucose is the main source of energy for?

cellular metabolism

17

What type of tissues don't store glucose?

nerve tissues

18

What breaks down starches into simpler carbohydrates?

amylase

19

the biochemical pathways that generate ATP?

Embden-Meyerhof pathway & Hexose monophosphate shunt

20

steroisomers

molecules with the same chemical formula but a different spatial orientation

21

reducing sugars:

glucose, maltose, lactose, fructose & galactose

22

glycolysis

breakdown of glucose for energy production

23

glycogenesis

excess glucose is converted & stored as glycogen, high concentrations in liver & skeletal muscles, it is a quickly accessible form of glucose

24

glycogenolysis

breakdown of glycogen into glucose, occurs when plasma glucose is decreased

25

gluconeogenesis

conversion of amino acids into glucose, takes place mainly in the liver

26

lipogenesis

conversion of carbs into fatty acids

27

organs involved in glucose regulation?

pancreas, liver, and endocrine glands

28

pancreas

synthesizes hormones insulin and glucagon

29

liver

glucose > glycogen > glucose

30

endocrine glands

hormones

31

decreased plasma glucose?

glycogenolysis in the liver releases glucose into the plasma

32

plasma glucose is increased?

glycogenesis stores glucose as glycogen

33

insulin

synthesized in the pancreas beta- cells of the Islets of Langerhans, released when plasma glucose is increased

34

Insulin is the only hormone that?

decreases plasma glucose

35

glucagon

2nd most important glucose regulatory hormone, synthesized by pancreas alpha cells

36

glucagon increases?

plasma glucose concentration

37

effects of glucagon

increases glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis and lipolysis

38

epinephrine

synthesized by adrenal medulla, "fight or flight", increases glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis

39

cortisol

adrenal medulla

40

growth hormone

anterior pituitary

41

thyroxine

thyroid gland

42

DM 1

insulin deficiency, juvenile onset, autoimmune destruction of beta cells

43

DM 2

Adult onset, NIDDM, no ketoacidosis, insulin resistant

44

diabetes

metabolic disease characterized by increased plasma glucose concentration (hyperglycemia) resulting from inadequate insulin or inadequate response to insulin

45

gestational diabetes

glucose intolerance during pregnancy

46

Criteria for Diagnosing Diabetes

8 hr fasting plasma glucose levels >\= 126 mg/DL, 2 hr post prandial (75 grams) w/ glucose levels >\= 200 mg/DL, random glucose >\=200 w/ symptoms, A1C >6.5%

47

What is the common cause of hypoglycemia?

Insulin overdose

48

Von Gierke Disease?

Glycogen storage disease

49

Decreased CSF glucose values suggest

Bacteria meningitis bc they are consuming glucose as an energy source

50

Normal or increased CSF glucose suggests?

Viral meningitis

51

Glucose Oxidase methodology

Measures the consumption of oxygen

52

Glucosylated hemoglobin

Plasma hemoglobin interacts with hemoglobin to form stable hemoglobin glucose compounds, proportional to average plasma glucose concentration over an 8-12 wk time

53

What is the most commonly measured glycosylated hemoglobin?

Hemoglobin A1c

54

Ketones

By products of lipolysis

55

Microalbuminuria

Associated with early renal damage