Flashcards in C14 Carboydrates Deck (56):
3 types of molecules that provide chemical energy to our cells?
lipids, amino acids, & carbohydrates
sugars & starches
All carbs have the?
C=O and -OH groups
2 types of carbohydrates?
aldose & ketose
single carbohydrate molecules
2 sugar linked together
2-10 linked sugars
long sugar chains
glucose, fructose, & galactose
sucrose & lactose
glucose and fructose =table sugar
glucose & galactose
glucose is the main source of energy for?
What type of tissues don't store glucose?
What breaks down starches into simpler carbohydrates?
the biochemical pathways that generate ATP?
Embden-Meyerhof pathway & Hexose monophosphate shunt
molecules with the same chemical formula but a different spatial orientation
glucose, maltose, lactose, fructose & galactose
breakdown of glucose for energy production
excess glucose is converted & stored as glycogen, high concentrations in liver & skeletal muscles, it is a quickly accessible form of glucose
breakdown of glycogen into glucose, occurs when plasma glucose is decreased
conversion of amino acids into glucose, takes place mainly in the liver
conversion of carbs into fatty acids
organs involved in glucose regulation?
pancreas, liver, and endocrine glands
synthesizes hormones insulin and glucagon
glucose > glycogen > glucose
decreased plasma glucose?
glycogenolysis in the liver releases glucose into the plasma
plasma glucose is increased?
glycogenesis stores glucose as glycogen
synthesized in the pancreas beta- cells of the Islets of Langerhans, released when plasma glucose is increased
Insulin is the only hormone that?
decreases plasma glucose
2nd most important glucose regulatory hormone, synthesized by pancreas alpha cells
plasma glucose concentration
effects of glucagon
increases glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis and lipolysis
synthesized by adrenal medulla, "fight or flight", increases glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
insulin deficiency, juvenile onset, autoimmune destruction of beta cells
Adult onset, NIDDM, no ketoacidosis, insulin resistant
metabolic disease characterized by increased plasma glucose concentration (hyperglycemia) resulting from inadequate insulin or inadequate response to insulin
glucose intolerance during pregnancy
Criteria for Diagnosing Diabetes
8 hr fasting plasma glucose levels >\= 126 mg/DL, 2 hr post prandial (75 grams) w/ glucose levels >\= 200 mg/DL, random glucose >\=200 w/ symptoms, A1C >6.5%
What is the common cause of hypoglycemia?
Von Gierke Disease?
Glycogen storage disease
Decreased CSF glucose values suggest
Bacteria meningitis bc they are consuming glucose as an energy source
Normal or increased CSF glucose suggests?
Glucose Oxidase methodology
Measures the consumption of oxygen
Plasma hemoglobin interacts with hemoglobin to form stable hemoglobin glucose compounds, proportional to average plasma glucose concentration over an 8-12 wk time
What is the most commonly measured glycosylated hemoglobin?
By products of lipolysis