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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (62):
1

Primary Standard

highly purified solution of known concentration, used to calibrate instrument, in order to measure other solutions of unknown concentration

2

Secondary Standard

less pure substance whose concentration was determined by comparison to a Primary Standard

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Control Solution

used to monitor QC, has known acceptable ranges

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Standard Solution

highly purified solution, not plasma based, have set listed values established by manufacturer, used to callibrate

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Water purification techniques:

distillation, reverse osmosis, filtration, deionization

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Reagent grades of water: Type 1

purest-required for sensitive tests

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Reagent grades of water: Type 2

Acceptable for most uses

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Reagent grades of water: Type 3

OK for washing glassware

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Solute

substance being dissolved into a liquid

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Solvent

the liquid the substance is being dissolved into

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Molarity

Moles/Liter

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Molality

Moles/1000 grams solvent

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Normality

Equivalents weights/ Liter

14

Valence

the electrical charge of an ion, or the number of moles that react with 1 mole of H+

15

Colligative Properties

properties of solutions that are based only on the numbers of particles that are dissolved in the solvent
(freezing point, boiling point, vapor pressure, & osmotic pressure)

16

Vapor Pressure

At any given temp, for a particular substance, there is a pressure at which the vapor of that substance is in equilibrium with its liquid, a substance with a high vapor pressure is said to be volatile

17

Conductivity

measure of electrical current

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Resistance

measure of resistance to current

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pH

p= "negative log" of a concentration of a substance in a solution, pH= -log(H+)

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Buffer

resist change in acidity, usually weak acids (or bases) & their salts

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To Contain (TC)

blow out

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To Deliver (TD)

let drain

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Volumetric flasks

the line indicates the level that contains an exact volume

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Erlenmeyer flasks

hold variable volumes

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Graduated cylinders

hold variable volumes

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Dilution

the reciprocal of the original volume to the final volume

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Accuracy

observations that are close to the "true" or "correct" value

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Precision

observations that are reproducible or repeatable

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Standard Deviation (SD)

measures dispersion

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Factors affecting reference ranges:

age, sex, diet, medications, physical activity, pregnancy, personal habits, geographic location, body weight, lab instruments, lab reagents

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Coefficient of Variation (CV)

SD as a % of the mean, compares different data groups

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Z-score

converts observations into its distance from the mean in SDs

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Levy-Jennings Chart

graph of QC data in terms of SDs from the mean

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RACE

Rescue-remove patients from immediate harm
Alarm- pull fire alarm
Contain- close doors and windows
Extinguish- ...fire

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Class A

paper, wood, plastic, fabrics

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Class B

Flammable liquids, gasses

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Class C

Electical

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Class D

Combustible metals

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Spectrophotometry

scattered light

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Nephelometry

measures scattered light at a 90 degree angle

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Turbidimetry

measures transmitted light at a 180 degree angle

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Fluorometry

90 degree angle, emitted light at a longer wavelength than initial wavelength

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Highest absorbance concentration?

2

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Atomic absorption

ground level energy, metal atoms absorb light, cannot be molecule because then it would fry

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Anodes

positive

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Anions

negative

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Cations

positive

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Cathode

negative

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Anodes attract?

Anion

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Cathodes attract?

Cations

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Factors that affect migration rates & molecules:

molecular weight, molecular shape, molecular electrical charge in the buffer (buffer pH), supporting media, temp, electrical voltage, migration time

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Electrophoresis

charged molecules migrate through an electrical field

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Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE)

electrolytes alter electrical potential in an electrochemical cell

54

Osmometers

measure total dissolved molecules & atoms by freezing point depression or vapor pressure

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Oximetry

variation of spectrophotometry, commonly performed during Blood Gas analysis to measure different forms of hemoglobin

56

Immunoelectrophoresis (IEP)

electrophoresis of antigens is followed by the addition of various antibodies to a parallel trough along the separated proteins

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Immunofixation Electrophoresis (IFE)

Antibody is poured over a completed electrophoresis procedure (performed on an agar surface) to produce visible precipitation lines, commonly used to measure immunoglobulin classes, as well as free kappa and lambda chains

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Rocket (Laurell Technique)

Antigen (proteins) undergo electrophoresis in a supporting agarose gel with specific antibody previously mixed into the gel, the length of these "rockets" is proportional to the concentration of antigen

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Competitive Immunoassays

competition between tagged and untagged antigen for limited antibody

60

ELISA

Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, will have the antibody or antigen attached to a solid surface

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EMIT

technique that utilizes steric hindrance of the enzyme tag

62

Fluorescence Polarization

utilizes the ability of antibody-antigen complexes to absorb & transmit polarized light