C1.4 Obtaining and using metals Flashcards Preview

Chemistry core edexcel > C1.4 Obtaining and using metals > Flashcards

Flashcards in C1.4 Obtaining and using metals Deck (45)
Loading flashcards...
1

Where are metals extracted from?

Ores in the Earth's crust

2

How are most metals extracted from their ores?

-heating with carbon
-electrolysis

3

What are ores?

Rocks that contain enough of a metal for extraction to create profit

4

What is extraction?

The process of obtaining a metal from an ore by using chemical reactions

5

What happens to the cost of extraction as the reactivity of a metal increases?

It increases

6

Why does it cost more to extract metals with a high reactivity?

Electrolysis costs more than heating with carbon because of the cost of electricity

7

How are metals up to and including zinc on the reactivity series extracted?

By heating with carbon

8

How are metals above zinc on the reactivity series extracted?

By electrolysis

9

What is reduction in terms of electrons?

The gaining of electrons

10

Is the extraction of metal from their oxides reduction or oxidation?

Reduction

11

What is reduction in terms of oxygen?

The loss of oxygen

12

What is oxidation in terms of electrons?

The loss of electrons

13

What is oxidation in terms of oxygen?

The gaining of oxygen

14

What is rusting?

The corrosion of iron

15

What does the rusting of iron produce?

iron(III) oxide

16

What happens to the speed of corrosion as the reactivity of a metal increases?

It speeds up

17

Is the corrosion of a metal reduction or oxidation?

Oxidation

18

What are the advantages of recycling metal?

-natural reserves of metal ores will last longer
-it takes less energy to recycle instead of extract most metal ores
-less pollution
-less waste metals are disposed of in landfill sites

19

What are the disadvantages of mining?

It damages the landscape and creates dust and noise pollution

20

What are the disadvantages of recycling metal?

-the costs and energy used to collect, sort and transport metals
-recycling can sometimes be more expensive than mining for some metals

21

Why are recycled metals cheaper than mined ones?

It takes less energy to recycle a metal than to mine for it

22

How are iron and steel seperated from other metals in a recycling plant?

By using a magnet

23

How are metals that aren't steel or iron sorted in a recycling plant?

By hand

24

What are the properties of aluminium?

-low density
-doesn't corrode

25

What is aluminium used for?

To make aeroplanes and cars

26

What are the benefits of using aluminium for aeroplanes and cars?

It makes them lighter which means less fuel is needed

27

What are the properties of all metals?

-shiny when polished
-conduct heat and electricity
-malleable
-ductile

28

What are the properties of copper?

-extremely good conductor
-low reactivity

29

What is copper used for?

-making copper cables
-making water pipes

30

What are the properties of gold?

-very unreactive
-doesn't corrode
-remains shiny
-one of the best electrical conductors

31

What are the uses of gold?

-jewellery
-in electronic devices

32

What are the properties of steel?

-strong
-magnetic

33

What are the uses of steel?

-electrical goods
-machinery
-cars
-frames for buildings
-bridges

34

What is an alloy?

A mixture of metals

35

Why is an alloy stronger than a pure metal?

It has atoms of different sizes so they can't slide past each other as easily

36

Why is iron alloyed with other metals?

-to get stronger
-to sometimes resist corrosion

37

What is stainless steel made up of?

Iron and small amounts of chromium and nickel

38

What is the purity of gold measured in?

Carats or fineness

39

How many carats does pure gold have?

24

40

What is the fineness of pure gold?

1000 parts per 1000

41

What is nitinol?

An alloy of nickel and titanium

42

What is a shape memory alloy?

An alloy that returns to it's original shape when heated

43

What are some uses of shape memory alloys?

-as stents in damaged blood vessels
-to make flexible spectacle frames

44

What is a smart material?

A material with a property that changes when there is a change in conditions

45

Why is gold alloyed with other metals?

To make it harder and stronger