C1.5 Fuels (unfinished) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C1.5 Fuels (unfinished) Deck (38)
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1

What is a hydrocarbon?

A compound that only containes hydrogen and carbon molecules

2

What are some examples of fossil fuels?

-crude oil
-natural gas
-coal

3

How are crude oil and natural gas made?

-fossils of sea animals and plants fall to the bottom of the sea bed
-these are trapped by layers of sediment which keep oxygen away which means they don't decay
-as layers of sediment increase the heat and pressure created turn the fossils into oil or natural gas

4

What is crude oil?

A mixture of different sized hydrocarbon molecules

5

What does it mean when a fuel is non-renewable?

It is a finite resource, it will not last forever

6

Is crude oil renewable or non-renewable?

Non-renewable

7

How is crude oil seperated into different fractions?

By using a fractional distillation column

8

What are the uses of gases obtained from crude oil?

-as fuel, liquid petroleum gas (LPG)
-bottled gases for camping stoves
-cooking and heating in homes

9

What is a use of petrol?

As fuel for cars

10

What is a use of kerosene?

As fuel for aircraft

11

What is a use of diesel oil?

As fuel for diesel engines

12

What are the uses of fuel oil?

-fuel for large ships and power stations
-fuel for heating
-lubricating oil

13

What are the uses of bitumen?

-to surface roads
-waterproofing flat roofs

14

What properties does the length of a carbon chain in a hydrocarbon affect?

-viscosity
-ease of ignition
-boiling point

15

What is collected at the top of the column during the fractional distillation of crude oil?

Gases

16

What is collected at the bottom of the column during the fractional distillation of crude oil?

Bitumen

17

What happens to the size of carbon chains as you go down the fractions of crude oil?

They get longer

18

What happens to the size of carbon chains as you go up the fractions of crude oil?

They get shorter

19

What happens to the ease of ignition as you down the fractions of crude oil?

It gets more difficult

20

What happens to boiling point as you go up the fractions of crude oil?

It gets lower

21

What happens to boiling point as you go down the fractions of crude oil?

It increases

22

What happens to viscosity as you go up the fractions of crude oil?

It gets runnier

23

What happens to viscosity as you go down the fractions of crude oil?

It gets thicker

24

What happens to the ease of ignition as you go up the fractions of crude oil?

It gets easier

25

What is combustion?

An oxidation reaction between fuel and oxygen that produces heat and light energy

26

What happens to anhydrous copper sulphate when water is added?

It turns blue

27

What does the complete combustion of hydrocarbons produce?

Carbon dioxide + water

28

What is the word equation for the complete combustion of methane?

Methane + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water

29

What is the symbol for methane?

CH^4

30

What causes the combustion of a hydrocarbon to be incomplete?

Not having enough oxygen present

31

What can be produced during the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon?

-carbon monoxide
-soot

32

What are the different combinations of products that can be produced from the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon?

-carbon + water
-carbon monoxide + water
-carbon dioxide + carbon monoxide + carbon + water

33

What is soot?

Solid particles of carbon

34

Why is carbon monoxide a toxic gas?

It reduces the amount of oxygen that the body can carry which can kill people

35

Why is carbon monoxide hard to detect?

It is colourless and odourless

36

How can people reduce the risk of getting poisoned by carbon monoxide?

-servicing all fuel-burning appliances regularly
-installing a carbon monoxide detector

37

What problems can soot cause?

-can clog up pipes that carry away waste gases in appliances
-can cause lung diseases when it builds up in lungs
-makes buildings dirty

38

What is acid rain?

Rainwater that has a pH lower than 5.2