Flashcards in C1.5 Fuels (unfinished) Deck (38)
What is a hydrocarbon?
A compound that only containes hydrogen and carbon molecules
What are some examples of fossil fuels?
How are crude oil and natural gas made?
-fossils of sea animals and plants fall to the bottom of the sea bed
-these are trapped by layers of sediment which keep oxygen away which means they don't decay
-as layers of sediment increase the heat and pressure created turn the fossils into oil or natural gas
What is crude oil?
A mixture of different sized hydrocarbon molecules
What does it mean when a fuel is non-renewable?
It is a finite resource, it will not last forever
Is crude oil renewable or non-renewable?
How is crude oil seperated into different fractions?
By using a fractional distillation column
What are the uses of gases obtained from crude oil?
-as fuel, liquid petroleum gas (LPG)
-bottled gases for camping stoves
-cooking and heating in homes
What is a use of petrol?
As fuel for cars
What is a use of kerosene?
As fuel for aircraft
What is a use of diesel oil?
As fuel for diesel engines
What are the uses of fuel oil?
-fuel for large ships and power stations
-fuel for heating
What are the uses of bitumen?
-to surface roads
-waterproofing flat roofs
What properties does the length of a carbon chain in a hydrocarbon affect?
-ease of ignition
What is collected at the top of the column during the fractional distillation of crude oil?
What is collected at the bottom of the column during the fractional distillation of crude oil?
What happens to the size of carbon chains as you go down the fractions of crude oil?
They get longer
What happens to the size of carbon chains as you go up the fractions of crude oil?
They get shorter
What happens to the ease of ignition as you down the fractions of crude oil?
It gets more difficult
What happens to boiling point as you go up the fractions of crude oil?
It gets lower
What happens to boiling point as you go down the fractions of crude oil?
What happens to viscosity as you go up the fractions of crude oil?
It gets runnier
What happens to viscosity as you go down the fractions of crude oil?
It gets thicker
What happens to the ease of ignition as you go up the fractions of crude oil?
It gets easier
What is combustion?
An oxidation reaction between fuel and oxygen that produces heat and light energy
What happens to anhydrous copper sulphate when water is added?
It turns blue
What does the complete combustion of hydrocarbons produce?
Carbon dioxide + water
What is the word equation for the complete combustion of methane?
Methane + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water
What is the symbol for methane?
What causes the combustion of a hydrocarbon to be incomplete?
Not having enough oxygen present
What can be produced during the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon?
What are the different combinations of products that can be produced from the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon?
-carbon + water
-carbon monoxide + water
-carbon dioxide + carbon monoxide + carbon + water
What is soot?
Solid particles of carbon
Why is carbon monoxide a toxic gas?
It reduces the amount of oxygen that the body can carry which can kill people
Why is carbon monoxide hard to detect?
It is colourless and odourless
How can people reduce the risk of getting poisoned by carbon monoxide?
-servicing all fuel-burning appliances regularly
-installing a carbon monoxide detector
What problems can soot cause?
-can clog up pipes that carry away waste gases in appliances
-can cause lung diseases when it builds up in lungs
-makes buildings dirty