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Flashcards in C2 Deck (40):
1

What is relative atomic mass?

Relative atomic mass, Ar, is the mean mass of an element compared to 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom

2

What is relative formula mass?

Relative formula mass, Mr, is the mean mass of a unit of substance compared to 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom

3

What is relative molecular mass?

Relative molecular mass, Mr, is the mean mass of a unit of a molecule compared to 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom

4

Appearance of metals and non-metals

Metals are shiny, non-metals are dull

5

Melting and boiling point of metals and non-metals

Metals usually have high melting and boiling points, while non-metals are usually low

6

State at room temperature for metals and non-metals

Metals are solid, non-metals have half solid, half gas

7

Malleable or brittle when solid for metals and non-metals

Metals are malleable, non-metals are brittle

8

Ductile or non-ductile when solid for metals and non-metals

Metals are ductile, while non-metals are non-ductile

9

Thermal and electrical conductivity for metals and non-metals

Metals are good conductors, non-metals are poor conductors

10

How do metals and non-metals form ions?

Metals lose electrons to form positive ions, while non-metals gain electrons to form negative ions

11

How do metals and non-metals react with each other?

Metals don't react with each other (mix to form alloys) while non-metals react to produce compounds that consist of molecules

12

What types of solutions do metals and non-metal oxides form when placed in water?

Metal oxides form alkaline solutions
Non-metal oxides produce acidic solutions

13

How do ionic compounds form?

When a metal reacts with a non-metal, electrons are transferred from the metal atoms to the non-metal atoms so both achieve more stable electronic structures

14

How are ionic compounds structured?

Ionic compounds contain positive and negative ions arranged in a regular way. This is called a giant ionic lattice

15

How are ions in ionic compounds held in place?

Ions are held in place by ionic bonds, which are electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions

16

What are the limitations of dot and cross diagrams?

Dot and cross diagrams don't show the 3D structure

17

What are the limitations of ball and stick models?

Ions are close together, and bonds are forces rather than physical objects made from matter, size is exaggerated

18

What are covalent bonds and how do they form?

Covalent bonds are shared pairs of electrons, which form between two non-metal atoms when the atoms get close enough to share electrons, to complete their outer shells

19

What are simple molecules?

Simple molecules are molecules that contain only a few atoms

20

What are the forces in covalent bonds?

In covalent bonds, they involve electrostatic forces of attraction between the nucleus of each bonded atom and the shared electrons

21

The ... between atoms in a simple molecule are ..., but the ... are ...

covalent bonds, strong, intermolecular forces, weak

22

What are the limitations of a displayed formula?

A displayed formula doesn't show the shape of the simple molecule, or the 3D part of it

23

What are giant covalent structures?

Giant covalent structures consist of many non-metal atoms joined by covalent bonds

24

How are atoms arranged in a giant covalent structure?

In a repeating regular pattern called a giant covalent lattice

25

What are the chemical formulae of giant covalent structures?

They are represented as empirical formulae because there are so many atoms

26

What are polymers?

Polymers are molecules that join end to end from smaller molecules called monomers

27

How are polymer molecules modelled?

Polymers are modelled using their monomer form, using dot and cross, space filling and ball & stick models

28

What are repeating units?

Repeating units are sections of a polymer that is repeated over and over again, rather like links in a chain

29

What are the structure of metals like?

Metal atoms are packed together in a regular way, forming a giant metallic lattice

30

How can you model a metal?

By drawing circles or spheres arranged in a regular pattern

31

What are metallic bonds?

Metallic bonds are the strong electrostatic forces between delocalised electrons and the closely packed, positively charged metal ions

32

What are the limitations of the isometric diagram of the metal?

An isometric diagram doesn't show the delocalised electrons, and the subatomic particles overlap

33

What are the limitations of the elevation view of the metal?

It doesn't show the 3D structure of the metal of the metallic bonding it has

34

How are the reactions of elements related to the arrangement of electrons in the atoms?

As elements lose or gain certain numbers of electrons in order to complete their outer shells in reactions

35

How are reactions of elements related to the atomic number?

As the number of electrons before the reaction represents the atomic number

36

Groups 1 and 2 become ... reactive as you go down the group

more

37

Group 7 becomes ... reactive as you go down the group

less

38

What was Mendeleev's first arrangement of the periodic table?

Mendeleev's arranged all the elements known in order of atomic weight, and he grouped the ones with similar chemical properties

39

How was Mendeleev's arrangement refined?

He rotated his table so the groups were shown as columns

40

What did Henry Moseley do and what did this lead to?

Henry Moseley discovered that an atoms atomic number was the number of protons in its nucleus, and this led to the creation of the modern Periodic Table