C2.3 Flashcards Preview

Chemistry > C2.3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in C2.3 Deck (25):
1

How many bonds can carbon form?

Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds

2

How do vast arrays of natural and synthetic organic compounds occur with carbon?

As carbon has the ability to form families of similar compounds, chains or rings

3

Explain the properties of diamond in term of structure and bonding

Diamond is a giant covalent structure in which each carbon atom is covalently bonded to 4 other carbon atoms

4

Explain the properties of graphite in term of structure and bonding

Graphite is a giant covalent structure where each carbon atom is covalently bonded to 3 other carbon atoms. This means 1 electron in each atom is delocalised

5

Explain the properties of graphene in term of structure and fullerenes

Graphene is a carbon allotrope that resembles a single layer of graphite

6

Explain the properties of fullerenes in term of structure and bonding

Fullerenes form a large family of carbon allotropes in which the molecules are shaped as tubes or balls

7

What happens to the bonds when a solid melts?

Some bonds break when a solid melts

8

What happens to the bonds when a liquid boils?

All remaining bonds break when a liquid boils

9

What happens to the bonds when a gas condenses?

Some bonds form when a gas condenses

10

What happens to the bonds when a liquid freezes?

All remaining bonds form when a liquid freezes

11

What bonds are involved in state changes for a metal and what are the strength of these?

Metallic bonds - strong

12

What bonds are involved in state changes for an ionic compound and what are the strength of these?

Ionic bonds - strong

13

What bonds are involved in state changes for a giant covalent structure and what are the strength of these?

covalent bonds - strong

14

What bonds are involved in state changes for a simple molecule and what are the strength of these?

intermolecular forces - weak

15

Are metals malleable or brittle and why is this?

Metals are malleable as they are held in a lattice by forces that attract them to a 'sea' of delocalised electrons

16

Are giant covalent structures malleable or brittle and why is this?

Giant covalent structures are brittle as their atoms are all held together by strong covalent bonds

17

Are ionic compounds malleable or brittle and why is this?

Oppositely charged ions are held in place by strong ionic bonds, which means ionic compounds are brittle

18

Are simple molecules and polymers malleable or brittle and why is this?

Simple molecules and polymers are attracted to each other by weak intermolecular forces which are easily broken, so they are brittle

19

Can metals conduct electricity and why is this?

Metals conduct electricity because their delocalised electrons are free to move through the lattice

20

Can simple molecules conduct electricity and why is this?

No, because they have no delocalised electrons

21

What are nanoparticles and what is their size?

Nanoparticles are particles between 1nm and 100nm across which contain only a few hundred atoms

22

Compare nano sizes to the size of an atom

A nanoparticle is around 10^-9 m, while an atom is 10^-10 m

23

Describe the surface area:volume of nanoparticles and how this affects properties
What are the uses of nanoparticles?

Surface area:volume of a nanoparticle is very large, and this makes them useful for:
cosmetics
medicines
paints
catalysts to speed up industrial chemical reactions
self-cleaning windows, ovens & clothes

24

How are the properties of nanoparticles related to their uses?

Nanoparticles are very small, so they are able to have many different uses

25

Explain the possible risks associated with nanoparticles

Nanoparticles are so tiny they may be breathed in, absorbed by the skin or pass into cells. They may take a long time to break down once released into the environment, and toxic substances may stick to their surfaces