Flashcards in C2.3 Deck (25):
How many bonds can carbon form?
Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds
How do vast arrays of natural and synthetic organic compounds occur with carbon?
As carbon has the ability to form families of similar compounds, chains or rings
Explain the properties of diamond in term of structure and bonding
Diamond is a giant covalent structure in which each carbon atom is covalently bonded to 4 other carbon atoms
Explain the properties of graphite in term of structure and bonding
Graphite is a giant covalent structure where each carbon atom is covalently bonded to 3 other carbon atoms. This means 1 electron in each atom is delocalised
Explain the properties of graphene in term of structure and fullerenes
Graphene is a carbon allotrope that resembles a single layer of graphite
Explain the properties of fullerenes in term of structure and bonding
Fullerenes form a large family of carbon allotropes in which the molecules are shaped as tubes or balls
What happens to the bonds when a solid melts?
Some bonds break when a solid melts
What happens to the bonds when a liquid boils?
All remaining bonds break when a liquid boils
What happens to the bonds when a gas condenses?
Some bonds form when a gas condenses
What happens to the bonds when a liquid freezes?
All remaining bonds form when a liquid freezes
What bonds are involved in state changes for a metal and what are the strength of these?
Metallic bonds - strong
What bonds are involved in state changes for an ionic compound and what are the strength of these?
Ionic bonds - strong
What bonds are involved in state changes for a giant covalent structure and what are the strength of these?
covalent bonds - strong
What bonds are involved in state changes for a simple molecule and what are the strength of these?
intermolecular forces - weak
Are metals malleable or brittle and why is this?
Metals are malleable as they are held in a lattice by forces that attract them to a 'sea' of delocalised electrons
Are giant covalent structures malleable or brittle and why is this?
Giant covalent structures are brittle as their atoms are all held together by strong covalent bonds
Are ionic compounds malleable or brittle and why is this?
Oppositely charged ions are held in place by strong ionic bonds, which means ionic compounds are brittle
Are simple molecules and polymers malleable or brittle and why is this?
Simple molecules and polymers are attracted to each other by weak intermolecular forces which are easily broken, so they are brittle
Can metals conduct electricity and why is this?
Metals conduct electricity because their delocalised electrons are free to move through the lattice
Can simple molecules conduct electricity and why is this?
No, because they have no delocalised electrons
What are nanoparticles and what is their size?
Nanoparticles are particles between 1nm and 100nm across which contain only a few hundred atoms
Compare nano sizes to the size of an atom
A nanoparticle is around 10^-9 m, while an atom is 10^-10 m
Describe the surface area:volume of nanoparticles and how this affects properties
What are the uses of nanoparticles?
Surface area:volume of a nanoparticle is very large, and this makes them useful for:
catalysts to speed up industrial chemical reactions
self-cleaning windows, ovens & clothes
How are the properties of nanoparticles related to their uses?
Nanoparticles are very small, so they are able to have many different uses