What are the three types of chemical bonds?
The three types of chemical bonds are ionic bonds, covalent bonds and metallic bonds.
Where do ionic bonds form?
Ionic bonds form between metals and non-metals.
Where do covalent bonds form?
Covalent bonds form between non-metal atoms.
Where do metallic bonds form?
Metallic bonds form in mettalic elements and alloys.
What are the particles involved with ionic bonding?
For ionic bonding the particles are oppositely charged ions.
What are the particles involved with covalent bonding?
For covalent bonding the particles are atoms which share pairs of electrons.
What are the particles involved with metallic bonding?
For metallic bonding the particles are atoms which share delocalised electrons.
Ionic bonding involves the transfer of what?
Ionic Bonding involves the transfer of electrons.
Do metals lose or gain electrons?
Metals lose electrons.
Do non metals lose or gain electrons?
Non metals gain electrons.
What is the charge of a metal ion?
The charge of a metal ion is positive.
What is the charge of a non-metal ion?
The charge of a non-metal ion is negative.
Draw a dot and cross diagram showing the formation of NaCl. Include electronic configurations.
What is an ionic compound and how are ions held together?
An ionic compound is a giant structure of ions. Ionic compounds are held together by strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions.
What is a giant ionic lattice?
A giant ionic lattice is made up of oppositely charged ions held togther by electrostaic forces acting in all directions. This is called ionic bonding.
What does the picture of the giant ionic lattice of sodium chloride look like?
What are covalent bonds?
When atoms share pairs of electrons, they form covalent bonds. These bonds between atoms are strong.
What different diagrams can covalent structures be represented by?
Draw dot and cross diagrams for the molecules of hydrogen, chlorine, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen chloride, water, ammonia and methane.
What is metallic bonding?
Metals consist of giant structures of positive metal cations arranged in a regular pattern. The cations are surrounded by delocalised electrons. The attractions between of delocalised electrons and positive cations gives rise to strong metallic bonds.
What does metallic bonding look like?
What are the three states of matter?
The three states of matter are solid, liquid and gas.
What determines the melting and boiling point of substances?
The melting and boiling points of substances are determined by the forces between the particles. This depends upon the structure and bonding within the substance.
List the state symbols used in chemical equations.
- Solid (s)
- Liquid (l)
- Gas (g)
- Aquesous (aq)
Aqueaous measn the substance is dissolved in water.
Why do ionic compounds have high melting points?
Ionic compounds have high melting points and high boiling points because of the large amounts of energy needed to break the many strong bonds.
Why do ionic compunds conduct electricity when molten or dissolved, but not when solid?
When melted or dissolved in water, ionic compounds conduct electricity because the ions are free to move and so charge can flow.
Describe some of the physical properties of small molecules.
Small molecules are usually gases or
liquids that have relatively low melting points and boiling points.
Describe the the strength of the intermolecular forces between small molecules.
Small molecules have only weak forces between the molecules (intermolecular forces). It is these intermolecular forces that are overcome, not the covalent bonds, when the substance melts or
What is the pattern in melting and boiling points as molecule size gets bigger?
The intermolecular forces increase with the size of the molecules, so larger molecules have higher melting and boiling points.
Do small covalent molecules conduct electricity?
No, small covalent molecules do not conduct electricity as there is no overall charge or spare ions or electrons to carry a charge.