C5 - The Growing Enviroment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C5 - The Growing Enviroment Deck (55)
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What are the five things a vine needs to complete its annual cycle?

Heat, Sunlight, Water, Nutrients, & Carbon dioxide .


Explain the role of the five things vine needs to complete its annual cycle.

Heat -The vine need sufficient amount of heat to grow and for successful flowering, fruit set, and ripening.

Vine uses sunlight to combine carbon dioxide and water to produce glucose and oxygen.

Vine combine the glucose with nutrients, extracts from the soil to support is growth and the most importantly, to ripening the grape.


Explain the factors which affects heat.

Latitude, Altitude, Ocean currents, Fog, Soil, & Aspect.


Vine can only grow when the temperature is above?

10 degree celsius


Most vineyards lie between the latitudes of?

30 - 50 degree north and south of the equator.


Give an example of how altitude affect/helping vine grow (WSET L3 textbook)

Cafayate in northern Argentina.


Give two examples on how ocean currents cool the regions (WSET L3 textbook)

The Humboldt Current off Chile and the Benguela Current off South Africa.


Give an example on how ocean currents warm the regions (WSET L3 textbook)

The Gulf Stream warms the north-west of Europe.


Give two examples on how fog help cooling the areas (WSET L3 textbook)

California, Casablanca Valley.


Describe how different soil type affecting heat.

Dark in colour or have a high stone and rock content absorb and reradiate more of the sun's heat.


Explain how aspect affecting heat.

The vineyard with an aspect facing the Equator receive the most heat.

Steeper slopes benefit even more from this effect, such as vineyard in Mosel, Germany.


What is continentality?

The temperature difference between the coldest and the hottest moths is referred to as continentality.


What is Diurnal range and how do they affect grape growing?

Diurnal range is the difference between daytime and night-time temperatures.

Cool nights help slow the loss of aromas and acidity in the grapes during ripening. Warm nights accelerate ripening.


Please explain how sea and river affecting continentality?

Large body of water, such as seas or lakes, heat up and cool down more slowly than landmasses. Therefore, in winter they have a warming effect on the surrounding air and in summer they have a cooing effect. Area close to large bodies of water therefore generally have low continentality whereas wine regions that are far inland usually see more temperature extremes and have high continentality.


Please explain how sea and river affecting diurnal range?

A vineyard's proximity to seas and lakes can reduce its diurnal range. Even relatively small bodies of water, such as rivers, can hold enough warmth to keep adjacent vineyards warm overnight and provide cooling breezes during the day.


Explain how the level of cloud cover affecting diurnal range?

The level of cloud cover (generally greater nearer seas and lakes) also influences diurnal range. This is because temperatures drop more quickly on clear nights, when there is no insulating blanket of cloud (increasing diurnal range), and rise more slowly on cloudy days, when sunlight cannot heat the ground directly (reducing diurnal range).


Please explain how temperature hazards - winter affecting vine and how to prevent/ protect them.

If temperatures fall below -20 degree celsius, the vine can be seriously damaged or even killed by winter freeze. -> Earthing up.

If the winter is mild, or no winter at all, the vine will not have a dormant period and may produce more than one crop each year.Its life will be shortened, and the quality of the grapes will suffers.

Mild winters also mean larger populations of insect pests survive to attack the vine the following summer.


Please explain how temperature hazards - spring frosts affecting vine and how to prevent/ protect them.

These occur when cold air below 0 degree celsius collects at ground level, freezing any water vapour that has settled on the ground or the vine. This will kill newly burst buds or young shoots.

There are four main forms of protection:

Heaters, Wind machines, Sprinklers, and thoughtful vineyard design - slope or train vines high.


Explain how extreme temperature during growing season affecting vines?

Cold temperature in the spring may delay budburst. This shortens the growing season and could mean that there is not enough time for the grape to ripen fully in the autumn before it becomes too cold. Flowering and fruit set can also be disrupted by cold temperatures, resulting in a smaller than average crop of grapes.

During summer, very hot temperatures ca be harmful, ad in prolonged periods of extreme heat all vine activity will slow and eventually stop, even when there is sufficient water. This prevents the grapes from ripening properly. In extreme cases the vine will die.


How sunlight benefit vine?

Without light, photosynthesis cannot happen and plats die.

Broadly speaking, the more light there is the more a vie will photosynthesise ad the greater the amount of glucose produced for growth ad ripening grapes.

Flowering and fruit set also benefit greatly from plenty of sunlight.


List the factors that affecting temperature.

Latitude, Seas and lakes, Aspect.


List the factors that affecting the amount of sunlight.

Latitude, Seas and lakes, Aspect.


Explain how latitude affecting sunlight and give an example.

Day length during the summer growing season is longer the further the vineyard is from the Equator. Riesling in Germany.


Explain how sea and lakes affecting sunlight and give an example.

Vineyards near large bodies of water tend to experience more cloud cover. In some case, vineyard situated above rivers or lakes can benefit from sunlight reflected from the surface of the water.


Explain how sea and lakes affecting sunlight and give an example.

A slope's aspects the amount of sunlight it receives and steeper slopes benefit more from this effect. Vineyard that face the Equator receive the most sunlight.


List three type of sunlight hazards and explain how it affects vine.

Cloudy conditions during flowering period can result in a smaller crop of grapes.

Also, the slowing in photosynthesis caused by heavy cloud cover can stop grapes ripening fully.

Intensely sunny conditions can cause sunburn, leading to bitter flavours developing in the grape skins.


How does grape grower deal with sunlight hazard?

Vine canopy - arrange and manage the leaves of the vine.


Why vine needs water?

For photosynthesis and to swell its grapes during ripening.


What is transpiration?

The process the vine accesses water through its roots and, in a process known as transpiration, water is drawn up to the leaves.


What determined the amount of water needs?