Cancer Flashcards Preview

M.H.R School Of Nursing > Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer Deck (47):
1

Cancer

diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control. Cancer cells can invade nearby tissues & can spread through the bloodstream & lymphatic system to other parts of the body. (National Cancer Institute)

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Loss of hair

can result from disease &/ or treatments.

Alopecia

3

Loss of appetite.

Anorexia

4

Antiemetic

medicine that prevents or controls vomiting or nausea

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The cutting out of a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination;

only way to definiatively dx cancer

Biopsy

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small cancer that has not spread and is located on the surface of a tissue.

Cancer In Situ

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originates in the skin or membranes lining the interior of hollow organs, such as the lungs, intestines, uterus, breasts, etc.

Carcinoma

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Adenocarcinoma

Cancer of glandular cells of the body

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• 3000 BC

Ancient Egypt prescribed pills & pigs ears for cancer

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Hippocrates

first to clarify neoplasms; 500 BC

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Galen

described cancer as ‘crab-like’; 500 BC

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most common type of skin cancer

Basal Cell Carcinoma

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originating in the lungs or bronchi

Bronchogenic Carcinoma

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Cancer of the cervix or neck of the uterus

Cervical Carcinoma

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Endometrial Carcinoma

Cancer of the lining of the uterus

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type of bronchogenic carcinoma

Large Cell Carcinoma

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Incidence

# of newly diagnosed cases of cancer observed within given population within specified time frame. (new cases)

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Morbidity

total number of cases of a specific disease (cancer) in a specified period of time (usually one year) per unit of population alive.

(illness rate)

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Mortality

total # of deaths from specific disease (cancer).

(death rate)

20

Oat Cell/ Small Cell Carcinoma

Another type of bronchogenic carcinoma

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Cancer arising from the skin or the surfaces of other structures, such as the mouth, uterus, or bronchi.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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Adjuvant Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy used in conjunction with surgery, radiation therapy or both to destroy cancer cells that may be otherwise unaffected.

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Combination Chemotherapy

Simultaneous use of several drugs to tx cancer

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Cytology

studie of cells (under microscope)
Pap smear

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Guaiac Test

chemical test to detect blood in the stool
used to screen for possible cancer of the colon or rectum.

26

Environmental carcinogens
3 types

Chemical, Physical, Viral
(carcinogenesis)

27

Oncogenesis

process by which neoplasms are produced: new growths

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Hyperplasia

abnormal increase in number of cells ® increased tissue mass; not cancerous

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Metaplasia

benign change of adult cells from one type to another

reversible

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Dysplasia

benign change of cells resulting from chronic irritation - may reverse or progress to cancer

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malignant, irreversible change of cells which regress to more primitive level (fetal)

Anaplasia

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cells with recognizable specialized structures and functions (well vs. poorly differentiated)

Differentiated

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Undifferentiated

lost their capacity for specialized functions

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Carcinogenesis

carcinogen causes the cell to mutate, mutated cell produces neoplastic cells with an accelerated growth pattern;

normal cell undergoes malignant transformation.

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G0

Resting Phase – perform all cell functions except proliferation

***Cancer cells cannot remain in G0 so they replicate continuously***

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G1

RNA & protein synthesis

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S

DNA synthesis

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G2

Additional RNA & DNA synthesis

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M

Mitosis – cell division

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Why classify cancer

• Form of communication
• effectiveness/ type of tx (evaluation tool)
• disease progression
• --> statistical information

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Stage 0

cancer in situ

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Stage I

localized

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Stage II

limited local spread

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Stage III

– regional spread

-Breast cancer in lymph; near by local structure; right breast to left to breast

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Stage IV

metastasis

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TNM Classification

Most Common
T= Tumor Size
N= Lymph nodes involved
M= Metastasis

Higher the number the worse the prognosis

47

Causes Bone Marrow Suppression

– Cancer
– Chemotherapy
– Radiation
– Combination