Flashcards in Cancer Deck (47):
diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control. Cancer cells can invade nearby tissues & can spread through the bloodstream & lymphatic system to other parts of the body. (National Cancer Institute)
Loss of hair
can result from disease &/ or treatments.
Loss of appetite.
medicine that prevents or controls vomiting or nausea
The cutting out of a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination;
only way to definiatively dx cancer
small cancer that has not spread and is located on the surface of a tissue.
Cancer In Situ
originates in the skin or membranes lining the interior of hollow organs, such as the lungs, intestines, uterus, breasts, etc.
Cancer of glandular cells of the body
• 3000 BC
Ancient Egypt prescribed pills & pigs ears for cancer
first to clarify neoplasms; 500 BC
described cancer as ‘crab-like’; 500 BC
most common type of skin cancer
Basal Cell Carcinoma
originating in the lungs or bronchi
Cancer of the cervix or neck of the uterus
Cancer of the lining of the uterus
type of bronchogenic carcinoma
Large Cell Carcinoma
# of newly diagnosed cases of cancer observed within given population within specified time frame. (new cases)
total number of cases of a specific disease (cancer) in a specified period of time (usually one year) per unit of population alive.
total # of deaths from specific disease (cancer).
Oat Cell/ Small Cell Carcinoma
Another type of bronchogenic carcinoma
Cancer arising from the skin or the surfaces of other structures, such as the mouth, uterus, or bronchi.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Chemotherapy used in conjunction with surgery, radiation therapy or both to destroy cancer cells that may be otherwise unaffected.
Simultaneous use of several drugs to tx cancer
studie of cells (under microscope)
chemical test to detect blood in the stool
used to screen for possible cancer of the colon or rectum.
Chemical, Physical, Viral
process by which neoplasms are produced: new growths
abnormal increase in number of cells ® increased tissue mass; not cancerous
benign change of adult cells from one type to another
benign change of cells resulting from chronic irritation - may reverse or progress to cancer
malignant, irreversible change of cells which regress to more primitive level (fetal)
cells with recognizable specialized structures and functions (well vs. poorly differentiated)
lost their capacity for specialized functions
carcinogen causes the cell to mutate, mutated cell produces neoplastic cells with an accelerated growth pattern;
normal cell undergoes malignant transformation.
Resting Phase – perform all cell functions except proliferation
***Cancer cells cannot remain in G0 so they replicate continuously***
RNA & protein synthesis
Additional RNA & DNA synthesis
Mitosis – cell division
Why classify cancer
• Form of communication
• effectiveness/ type of tx (evaluation tool)
• disease progression
• --> statistical information
cancer in situ
limited local spread
– regional spread
-Breast cancer in lymph; near by local structure; right breast to left to breast
T= Tumor Size
N= Lymph nodes involved
Higher the number the worse the prognosis