Unit 4 Oral Medication Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4 Oral Medication Deck (40):
1

Cardinal Rules of Medication Administration

Always -->Ten-rights; 3 checks
NEVER--> admin a med you did not prepare
YOU are legally liable if you cause harm to a pt from medication you administer

2

Characteristics

Absorbed mainly in the small intestine
Slower onset
Prescription in higher doses than parental route
NEVER direcly touch oral meds

3

Advantages/ Benefits of Oral Medication

Most Common, Least Expensive, Most Convient

Decreased risk for infection (does not break skin barrier)

4

Disadvantages

Unpleasant taste
Irritation of gastric mucosa
Irregular/ slow absorption
Stains teeth

5

Contraindicated (inappropriate) for

(Oral Medications)

N/V
NPO
Can't Swallow/ Dysphagia
Unconscious
Potential for aspiration

6

Alterations in Absorption (po)

food in stomach
Rate of Gastric Emptying
slow gastric empty --> prolongs absorption
increase gastric empt -->decrease absorption

7

Gastric Suctioning

- med withheld/ give by alt. route
- may (w/ order) give this route and hold suction for (20-30 MINS)

8

Changes in the Elderly that affect response

Decreased LIVER & KIDNEY function
Decreased gastric mobility, acid production, blood flow to GI -->impaired absorption
Decreased Protein Binding Sites
Multiple drugs
Increased Adipose Tissue

9

The decreased number of Protein Binding Sites

Alters the blood-brain barrier--> Fat soluble drugs reach brain --> dizziness and confusion

10

Increased body fat--> decreased total body fluid =

drug toxicity (more easily)

11

Solid Froms of Oral Medications

Tablets
Capsules
Lozenges
Powders

12

Tablets

Powered medications &/or other substances compressed into hard disks

May be scored,crushed --> easier swallowing

13

Coated Tablets

NEVER broken, crushed, chewed
Protects against environment/ Conceals bitter taste
Delays absorption until intestines (Enteric Coated)
Prevents damage to gastric mucosa

14

Chewable Tablets

Contains flavoring, sweeteners
ALWAYS follow with H20 --> dissolve & absorb
Good for pt who can't swallow intact dose

15

Effervescent Tablets

disintegration in solution
Rapid onset action
Ex: antacids & analgesics

16

Time Released

Released & absorbed gradually (in stages)
Pt take fewer pills per day
Do NOT crush, chew, or break open

17

Capsules

solid dose form of powder, liquid or oil

1+ meds &/or inert substances incased in small shell

Gelatinous material that dissolves in GI tract

Colored to aid in identification

18

Gelatinous Material that dissolves in GI Tract

Capsules

19

Soft Capsules

CAN be opened and mixed with soft foods

Make sure pt gets COMPLETE Dose

20

Hard Capsules

Contain Drugs that irritate mouth & esophagus
NEVER break/ open

21

Sustained Release

SR in name
NEVER break/ open
Gradual release of drug over time

22

Lozenges or Troche:

Designed to be placed in mouth
Flat, round dosage from containing drug
Flavored sugar and mucilage

23

Powders

Mixed in Liquids
Come in large quantities/dispensed per dose ordered
Mix in 15ml to aid absorption

24

Types of Liquids

Syrups
Solution
Suspensions
Elixirs
Tinctures

25

Syrups

Sugar, water, + flavor
NOT FOR DIABETICS
1* children and adults with dysphagia
Soothes irritated mucus membrane
Usually ordered by the teaspoon (1tsp=5ml)

26

Solutions

Given orally, parentally, or externally
Must Be STERILE if given parentally

27

Suspensions

liquid and solid mixture in which solid particles are not dissolved; particles will settle out

28

Types of Suspensions

Magmas
Gels
Emulsions

29

Magmas

Thick, milky
Type of Suspension

30

Gels

Small suspended particles
Type of Suspension

31

Emulsions

mixture of oil & water with agents that keep droplets suspended

SPECIAL CARE TO PREVENT ASPIRATION

Type of Suspensions

32

Elixirs

Med dissolved in ALCOHOL and WATER, &/or sweetener

CAUTION: NOT FOR Alcoholic

May dilute with small amount of H20

33

Tinctures

More potent Elixir
Oral or Topical

34

Sublingual Oral Medication

Under Tongue
Dissolved/ ABSORBED via MUCOUS MEMBRANE
IMMEDIATE absorption by surrounding blood supply
NOT CHEWED OR SWALLOWED

35

Buccal Medication

Between cheek & gum or under upper lip
Dissolved/ absorb. via MUCOUS MEMBRANE
IMMEDIATE absorption by surrounding bld supply
Local/ systemic action
Not often used

36

Purpose of Administering Oral Medication

Provide Medicine that has systemic/ local effect on G.I. TRACT

37

Assessments for Administering Oral Medication

1. Allergies
2. Ability to Swallow
3. Vomiting & Diarrhea
4. Specific Drug Actions ( Side effects, interactions, adverse reactions)
5. Pt's Knowledge
6. Lab values, vital signs specific to medication

38

3 checks

1. when removed from drawer
2. pouring into med cup
3. at bedside

*LOCK MED CART-- DO NOT LEAVE UNLOCKED*

39

Administering Tablets

Place into Med Cup
DO NOT remove from wrapper until at bedside
If stock med, place correct dose in cup
**Keep Narcotics, meds that require v/s separate
If difficulty swallowing, crush/ mix pill with soft food

40

Preparing Liquids

Mix Med
Lay Cap up to prevent contamination
Measure prescribed dose
Pour from UNLABELED SIDE of bottle
At EYE LEVEL-- BOTTOM of Meniscus
Rx Syringe
Set on flat surface to check accuracy --> pour excess out --NOT BACK INTO BOTTLE
DO NOT leave pour med unattended
NEVER USE DROPER FROM ANOTHER MED