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Phase 2a - Introductory Clincal Sciences > Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer Deck (63)
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1

Define oncogenesis.

Transformation of normal cells to neoplastic cells through permanent genetic alterations or mutation.

2

Define carcinogenesis.

Transformation of normal cells to malignant neoplastic cells through permanent genetic alterations or mutations.

3

Define carcinogenic.

Cancer causing.

4

Define oncogenic.

Tumour causing.

5

Define mutagenic.

Acts on DNA.

6

List the 5 broad classes of carcinogens.

1) chemical
2) viral
3) biological agent
4) radiation (ionising and non-ionising)
5) miscellaneous

7

List 2 features of chemical carcinogens.

1) no common structural features
2) most require metabolic conversion (pro-carcinogen —> ultimate carcinogen)

8

Describe metabolic conversion of chemical carcinogens. (3)

1) pro-carcinogens are converted to ultimate carcinogens by enzymes
2) enzyme may be confined to a certain organ —> neoplasm could be organ-specific
3) enzyme may by ubiquitous —> neoplasm could occur systemically

9

List 3 examples of biological agent carcinogens.

1) hormones, e.g. oestrogen in mammary cancer
2) mycotoxins, e.g. aflatoxin B1 in heptocellular carcinoma
3) parasites, e.g. shistosoma in bladder cancer

10

List 2 examples of miscellaneous carcinogens.

1) asbestos
2) metals, e.g. lead or arsenic

11

List 4 host factors affecting neoplasm formation.

1) constitutional factors, e.g. age, gender, race
2) diet
3) premalignant lesions - local abnormality associates with increased risk of malignancy
4) transplacental exposure, e.g. diethylsteboestrol —> vaginal cancer

12

Define tumour.

Any abnormal swelling.

13

List 4 types of tumour.

1) neoplasm
2) inflammation
3) hypertrophy
4) hyperplasia

14

Define lesion.

Localised abnormality.

15

Define neoplasm.

A lesion resulting from autonomous abnormal growth of cells, which persist after initiating stimulus is removed.

16

List the 3 defining features of a neoplasm.

1) autonomous
2) abnormal
3) persistent

17

List the 2 components of a neoplasm.

1) neoplastic cells
2) stroma

18

List 3 features of neoplastic cells.

1) usually monoclonal (single ancestral cell)
2) growth pattern related to parent cell
3) synthetic activity related to parent cell

19

Describe the stroma.

Network of cells that support neoplastic cells.

20

List 3 ways stroma support neoplastic cells

1) connective tissue framework
2) mechanical support
3) nutrition

21

What is essential in neoplasm growth?

Vascularisation.

22

From what size onwards do neoplasms need vascularisation?

Greater than 2mm diameter.

23

What is the central necrosis?

Necrosis of the centre of malignant neoplastic tissue, as it grows faster than it can recruit blood vessels.

24

List 2 reasons to classify neoplasms.

1) determine appropriate treatment
2) provide prognostic information

25

List 2 methods of classifying neoplasms.

1) behavioural: benign/borderline/malignant
2) histogenetic: cell of origin

26

What does a borderline classification mean?

Neoplasm defies precise classification.

27

List 9 features of benign neoplasms.

1) localised
2) non-invasive
3) slow growth rate
4) close resemblance to normal tissue
5) encapsulated
6) normal nuclear morphometry
7) necrosis rare
8) ulceration rare
9) exophytic growth on mucosal surfaces (into lumen)

28

List 5 ways benign neoplasms cause morbidity and morality.

1) destruction on adjacent structures —> pressure necrosis
2) obstruct flow
3) hormone production
4) transformation into malignant neoplasms (however most malignant neoplasms start as malignancies)
5) anxiety

29

List 9 features of malignant neoplasms.

1) ability to metastasise
2) invasive - destroy surrounding tissue
3) rapid growth rate
4) variable resemblance to normal tissue
5) poorly defined / irregular border - crab-like
6) hyperchromatic and pleomorphic nuclei
7) necrosis common
8) ulceration common
9) endophytic growth on mucosal surfaces (away from lumen)

30

List 7 ways malignant neoplasms cause morbidity and mortality.

1) destruction of adjacent tissue —> pressure necrosis
2) obstruct flow
3) hormone production
4) blood loss from ulcers
5) paraneoplastic effects - altered immune system response to a neoplasm
6) anxiety
7) pain - generally a late feature