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Phase 2a - Introductory Clincal Sciences > Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunology Deck (170)
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1

What key feature must the immune system have?

Ability to discriminate between self and non-self.

2

List 6 features of innate immunity.

1) non-specific
2) instinctive (from birth)
3) rapid response (hours)
4) no memory - resistance doesn’t improve
5) limited-range of antigen recognition - can be evaded
6) neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells

3

List 6 features of adaptive immunity.

1) specific
2) acquired
3) slow response (days-weeks)
4) memory - resistance improves
5) wide-range of antigen recognition
6) T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes

4

What is the lifespan of a neutrophil?

6 hours - 12 days.

5

List 2 functions of neutrophils.

1) phagocytosis - innate immunity
2) granule secretion - innate immunity

6

What is the lifespan of monocytes?

Months.

7

List 2 functions of monocytes.

1) phagocytosis (pathogens or damaged/necrosed)- innate immunity
2) antigen presentation - adaptive immunity

8

List 4 types of receptors found on monocytes.

1) antibody Fc receptors
2) complement receptors
3) toll-like receptors (TLR)
4) mannose receptors

9

What is the relationship between monocytes and macrophages?

Monocytes differentiate into macrophages in tissues.

10

What is the lifespan of a macrophage?

Months - years.

11

List 2 functions of macrophages.

1) phagocytosis (pathogens or damaged/necrosed) - innate immunity
2) antigen presentation - adaptive immunity

12

List 4 receptors found on macrophages.

1) antibody Fc receptors
2) complement receptors
3) toll-like receptors (TLR)
4) mannose receptors

13

What molecule is found in monocyte and macrophage lysosomes that help phagocytosis?

Peroxide, oxygen molecule with an extra electron pair.

14

What is the lifespan of an eosinophil?

8-12 days.

15

What is the function of eosinophils?

Immunity to parasitic infections and allergic reactions.

16

What is MBP?

Major basic protein. Protein secreted from eosinophil granules.

17

List 4 functions of MBP.

1) activate neutrophils
2) induce histamine release from mast cells
3) induce bronchospasm (in allergy)
4) potent toxin for helminth worms

18

What is the lifespan of basophils?

2 days.

19

What is the difference between basophils and mast cells?

Basophils circulate in the blood whilst mast cells are fixed in tissue.

20

What is the function of basophils and mast cells?

Immunity to parasitic infections and (the main cause of) allergic reactions.

21

What do basophils and mast cells express a lot of?

High affinity IgE receptors.

22

What happens when IgE bind to basophils or mast cells?

De-granulation, releasing histamine, causing an allergic reaction.

23

What is the lifespan of T lymphocytes?

Hours - years.

24

List the 5 types of T lymphocyte.

1) helper T 1
2) helper T 2
3) cytotoxic T
4) natural killer T
5) T reg

25

What is the basic function of helper T 1 lymphocytes?

Help cell-mediated response against intracellular pathogens.

26

What is the basic function of helper T 2 lymphocytes?

Help humoral response against extracellular pathogens.

27

What is the basic function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes?

Kill cells via apoptosis.

28

What is the basic function of T reg lymphocytes?

Regulate and dampen immune responses.

29

What is the lifespan of B lymphocytes?

Hours - years.

30

Describe the function of B lymphocytes. (4)

1) express a specific antibody on membrane surface
2) recognise antigens presented by antigen presenting cells via specific antibody
3) differentiate into plasma cell
4) secrete antibodies