Growth, Development & Aging Flashcards Preview

Phase 2a - Introductory Clincal Sciences > Growth, Development & Aging > Flashcards

Flashcards in Growth, Development & Aging Deck (21)
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1

List the 3 classifications of disease.

1) congenital
2) acquired
3) multifactorial

2

Define congenital disease.

A disease present at birth.

3

List the 3 classifications of congenital disease.

1) genetic - spontaneous or inherited
2) non-genetic

4

Give an example of inherited genetic congenital disease.

Cystic fibrosis.

5

Give an example of spontaneous genetic congenital disease.

Down’s syndrome.

6

Give an example of non-genetic congenital disease.

Foetal alcohol syndrome.

7

Give an example of acquired disease.

Tuberculosis.

8

Give an example of multifactorial disease.

Cleft palate.

9

Define hypertrophy.

Increase in tissue size due to increase in cell size.

10

Define hyperplasia.

Increase in tissue size due to increase in cell number.

11

Define atrophy.

Decrease in tissue size due to a decrease in cell size and/or number.

12

Define metaplasia.

Change in differentiation of a cell from one fully differentiated cell type to another fully differentiated cell type.

13

Define dysplasia.

Morphological changes seen in cells developing into cancers. An imprecise term.

14

Give an example of hypertrophy.

Muscle hypertrophy by athletes.

15

Give an example of hyperplasia.

Hyperplasia of bone marrow cells that produce RBCs.

16

Give 2 examples of atrophy.

1) natural regression of Wolffian or Müllerian ducts in development of genitourinary tract
2) disease, muscle atrophy due to loss of innervation

17

Give an example of metaplasia.

Ciliated respiratory epithelium —> squamous epithelium in trachea and bronchi of smokers.

18

Why does a cell’s ability to divide decreases as you get older?

Telomeric shortening.

19

Define telomeres.

Randomly repetitive, non-coding DNA sequence at the tip of each chromosome.

20

Explain telomeric shortening.

1) during DNA synthesis telomeric sequences are not fully copied
2) with each cell division telomeres shorten
3) eventually telomeres become so short that DNA polymerase is unable to engage
4) cell is incapable of any further replication

21

List 7 conditions due to the pathology of aging.

1) sarcopaenia
2) deafness
3) senile dementia
4) cataracts
5) osteoporosis
6) dermal elastosis - wrinkling
7) impaired immunity