Name the differences between a bening tumor and a malignant tumor
benign vs. malignant Slow Growth vs. Rapid Growth Non-Invasive vs. Invade Local Tissues Well Differentiated vs. Poorly Differentiated No Metastasis vs. Can Metastasize
Name 2 tumor marker
Prostate-Specific Antigen (Prostate Cancer)
ACTH (Pituitary Adenomas)
what’s the difference between oncogenes and tumor suppressor?
(related to causing cancer)
oncogenes : Only one copy must be Activated or Overexpressed to promote Cancer
tumor suppressor : Both copies must be Deactivated or Silenced to cause Cancer
What are the main hallmarks of cancer?
- deregulating cellular energetics
- sustained proliferative signaling
- evading immune destruction
- evading growth suppressors
- enabling replicative immortality
- tumor promoting inflammation
Name the key acquired features of metastasis
↑ Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) Expression
metastasis targets :
breast or prostate
Breast or Prostate → Bones
GI Cancers → Lungs
Lung Cancer → Brain & Others
what is one function of polyphenols?
decrease DNA mutations
what are the posible consequences of obesity? systemic interactions
Insulin Resistance (T2DM)
Low-Grade inflammation & Oxidative Stress
Adipokines Dysregulation (Leptin & Adiponectin)
↑ GH Signalling (IGF-1 + Estrogen & Testosterone)
what are the carcinogene actions of iomic radiations?
Oncogene/TSG Alterations Progeny & Bystander Effects Chromosomal Aberrations via: - Direct DNA Strands Break - Indirect Oxidative Stress