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Flashcards in Cancer Power Points Deck (14)
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Cancer's Early Warning Signs

C: Change in bowel or bladder
A: A lesion that does not heal
U: Unusual bleeding or discharge
T: Thickening or lump in breasts or elsewhere
I: Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
O: Obvious changes in wart or mole
N: Nagging cough or persistent hoarseness


Types of tumors

- Slow growth
- Remains localized
- Usually encapsulated
- Smooth, defined shape
- Mobile when palpated
- Resembles parent cell
- Crowds normal tissue
- Rarely recurs
- Rarely fatal


Types of tumors

- Rapid growth
- Metastasizes
- Rarely encapsulated
- Irregular shape
- Immobile when palpated
- No resemblance to parent
- Invades normal tissue
- Recurrence likely
- Potentially fatal


Grades of tumors

- Grade 1: most differentiated, most like parent tissue
- Grade 2: moderately well differentiated
- Grade 3: poorly differentiated
- Grade 4: undifferentiated, most unlike parent tissue, most malignant


Classification of Cancer
Clinical staging classifications

0: Cancer in situ
1: Tumor limited to tissue of origin; localized tumor growth
2: Limited local spread
3: Extensive local and regional spread
4: Metastasis


TNM Cancer Staging

T (tumor): presence of tumor, location, size
N (nodes): + or – lymph node involvement
M (mets): presence or absence of metastasis
Histopathology: degree of differentiation of cancerous cells


Main Sites of Metastasis

- Brain and cerebrospinal fluid
- Lung
- Liver
- Adrenals
- Bone


Diagnosing CA

- Biopsy
- Endoscopy
- Diagnostic Imaging
- Laboratory Blood Tests
- Fecal Occult Blood

- What is the nurse’s role?


Cancer TX

- Surgery
- Chemotherapy
- Radiation
- Biotherapy: immunotherapy
- Bone marrow transplantation
- Peripheral stem cell transplantation
- Other

- What client problems might these clients have?
- What interventions might the nurse use to combat the problems?
- How could the nurse evaluate that the interventions were effective?


Nursing Management

- Teaching patients about their treatment and what to expect during their treatment can help decrease fear and anxiety.
- Interventions to counter the effects of N/V, diarrhea, constipation and mucositis and skin reactions


Nursing Management
- Mucositis –
- Skin Reactions –

- Mucositis – inflammation/irritation/ulcers to the mouth.
No hard toothbrushes only soft – regular dental care – rinse with saline to clean
- Skin Reactions – Radiation therapy can cause local erythema
* Prevent infections and facilitate healing. Do not use heating pads, ice packs and hot water bottles. Avoid constrictive garments, harsh chemicals and deodorants. No metal, alcohol, perfume.
* Use Aloe vera gel or calendula ointment.


Cancer mnemonic

C: Comfort
A: Altered body image
N: Nutrition
C: Chemo
E: Evaluate response to meds
R: Respite for caregivers


5 stages of Grieving

Elizabeth Kubler-Ross
- Denial
- Anger
- Bargaining
- Depression
- Acceptance


After 3 weeks of radiation therapy, a patient has lost 10 pounds and does not eat well because of mucositis. An appropriate nursing diagnosis for the patient is

1. risk for infection related to poor nutrition.
2. ineffective self-health management related to refusal to eat.
3. imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements related to oral inflammation and ulceration.
4. ineffective health maintenance related to lack of knowledge of nutritional requirements during radiation therapy.

Answer: 3
Rationale: The nursing problem is imbalanced nutrition related to the mucositis.