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Causes of Thrombocytopenia

- Inherited
- Acquired
* Immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP)
* Thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP)
* Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)


Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)

- Most common acquired thrombocytopenia
- Syndrome of abnormal destruction of circulating platelets
- Primarily an autoimmune disease


Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)
Clinical syndrome manifests as:

- Acute condition in children
- Chronic condition in adults
- Women between 15 – 40 years of age
- Older adults
- Gradual onset with transient remissions
- Treated with multiple therapies


Clinical Manifestations

- Patients are often asymptomatic.
- Most common symptom is mucosal or cutaneous bleeding.
- Petechiae – microhemorrhages
- Purpura – bruise from numerous petechiae
- Ecchymosis – larger lesions from hemorrhage
- Clinical Manifestations
Prolonged bleeding after routine procedures
Internal bleeding may manifest as weakness, fainting, dizziness, tachycardia, abdominal pain, or hypotension.
Hemorrhage is a major complication.
Insidious or acute
Internal or external



Diagnostic Studies
↓ Platelet count
Prolonged bleeding < 50,000/μL
Hemorrhage ↓ 20,000/μL
Peripheral blood smear
Medical history
Clinical examination
Lab parameter comparisons