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Flashcards in cancer/sarcopenia Deck (17)
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1

Symptoms of cancer

-fatigue
-lump under skin
-weight changes
-skin changes
-changes in bowel
-difficulty swallowing
-persistant pain, fevers
-unexplained bleeding/bruising

2

causes of cancer (3 paths)

Proto-oncogenes- involved in normal cell growth and division. however when these genes are mutated they become cancer causing genes (oncogenes) allowing cells to grow/divide when they shouldnt

Tumor suppressor- involved in controlling cell growth and division. Cells w alterations in tumor suppressor genes may divide in uncontrolled manner

DNA repair genes- involved in fixing damaged DNA. cells w mutations in these genes tend to develop additional mutations

3

4 Stages of cancer

1. smaller than 2cm, localized
2. 2-5cm, becomes vascularized
3. >5cm, spreads to lymph nodes
4. Metastasized, defragments into vasculature

4

How does dysfunctional adipose tissue afffect tumor development (3 ways)

1. inflamation
- adipose tussue recruits m1 macrophages (proinflammatory)
-increased expression of C reactive pro, IL6, TNFa

2. Insulin resistance
-chronic hyperinsulinaemia

3. Hypoxia angiogenesis
- angiogenesis (helps get tumor vascularized)

5

what is cachaxia

80% of cancer patients will have it
characterized by increased protein degradation and decreased pro synthesis

6

Cachaxia flow

Tumor-> TNFa/ IL6 (systematic inflamation)--> muscle wasting, increase brown fat (for nothing), fat depletion, Increases UCP1 (ruins gradient leads to less energy)

7

Exercise effect on tumor

increase AMPK activation in tumor
inhibits AKT/MTOR pathway in tumor which inhibits its growth

8

first line of defence in imune function

NK cells and T cells (tumors inhibit these)

9

How does exercise help with immune function

exercise increases epinephrine which releases NK cells
exercise induced IL6 is involved w NK cell distribution

10

What is sarcopenia characterized by

loss of strength, coordination, mobility, decreased resting energy expenditure, increase risk of falls

11

Aging + sarcopenia flow chart

Aging--> decrease PA --> increase abdominal fat --> decrease adiponectin, increase TNFa, increase IL6--> muscle wating and macrophage recruitment (inflamation)

12

3 general aspects of sarcopenia

1. muscle fibre atrophy
2. loss of muscle fibres (greater loss of type 2, fewer MUs)
3. slowing of contractile properties

13

SMAD3 path

Smad 3 results in calcium mishandling which increases calpain which targets actin and myosin

14

how mitochondrial dysfunction affects muscles

Increase ROS-> increase ER stress -> blocks mTOR
increase AMP/ATP--> increase AMPK-> blocks mTOR

15

What does IGF stim

stims both proliferation and differentiaction of sat cells during muscle growt
-induces calcineruon nuclear factor which actibates GATA2 (related to hypertrophy)

16

Endurance exercise on sarcopenia

-increase PGC1a (mito biogenesis)
-increase mito fission and fussion
- increase pro and sat cell expression
-decrease myostatin
-inhibit apoptosis
-increase GH and IGF1

17

Resistance exercise on sarcopenia

increase strength
stim pro synthesis
inhibit apoptosis and autophagy