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Flashcards in dementia/Mental health Deck (23)
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1

aspects of alzheimers

60-80% of all cases
-impaired cognition, perturbation in brain energy metabolism
-hippocampus first region to suffer damage

2

Two aspects of the patholody of dementia

Neurofibrillary tangels
- hyperphosphorylated tau proteins
-coorelated to progression

Amyloid b plaque
- pro. fragments built up between neurons
-interfere w synaptic signaling
(microglia may be activated to clean up but can cause release of tnfa and IL6)

3

neuroinflammation in dementia causes

activated microglia
-TNFa, IL6, increase ROS

Apolipoprotien E4
- mitochondrial dysfunction
-inhibits neutrite outgrowth
-enhances tau phosphorylation

mito dysfunction in brain
-too much ca in mito opens MPTP and releases cytochrome c + A1F which leads to apoptosis

4

ROS and brain

-brain is extremely suseptible to oxidative stress (uses alot of mito therefor big risk of ROS prod
- brain is made of poly unsaturated fats which ROS attacks easily

5

How mito dysfunction leads to apoptosis

oxidative stress--> MTDNA mutations--> disruptions in ca homeostasis--> MPTP opening--> releases apoptic signaling

6

Brain hypometabolism (3 aspects)

1. decreased GLUT1/3 expression
-cant get enough glu to brain= state of stress= ROS prod=neural apoptosis

2. Decreased cerebral BF
-periferal obesity=hypertension
--which puts strain on CV system

3. Impaired insulin signaling

7

Pathway of systematic inflamation in brain

1. Peripheral obesity-> adiposity
2. chronic low grade inflamation
3. releases cytokines (TNFa, IL6)
4. pass blood brain barriers (activates microglia
5. Chronic neuroinflamation
6. Activates MAPKs

8

MAPKs effect

-increase neuronal apoptosis
- increase BACE1 (regulates prod of AB)
-Phosphorylation of APP by JNK

9

TNFa and JNK affects

-directly inhibits IRS1
-leads to impaired insulin signaling

10

Exercise effects on brain

Increase NOS, eNOS, increase BDNF, IGF1, Antioxidants

all lead to- increase cerebral BF, angiogenesis, neuroplasticity, lowers inflamation, increasess dendric density

11

BDNF effects on brain

-proliferation of hippocampal neurons
-enhances synaptic plasticity/ neurogenesis
- improves learning/memory
- inhibits neuroinflamation + apoptosis

12

IGF1 effects on brain

-proliferation of hippocampal neurons (more synapses= more buffered against the plaques, can afford to lose more)
- improves insulin sensitivity
-increase BDNF

13

Irisin effects on brain

-proliferation of hippocampal neurons
-enhances synaptic plasticitu and neurogenesis
-browning of WAT
-Stim AKT/MTOr path

14

Exercise training on mitochondria

-increase antioxidant capacity
-decrease apoptic markers
-increase biogenesis
-increase HSP
-reduce BACE 1 content

15

depression symptoms

-persistant feelings of sadness, hopelessness, worthlessness
-irritability, frusturation
-loss of interest
-fatigue

16

Neurotransmitter cause of depression

Dopamine, Serotonin, epi/norepinephrine

17

Modulating factors, biological mechanisms and immunological alterations for depression

moderating
-age, stress, env.

Biological Mech
-corticotropin releasing horomone
-increase hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis
- increase sympathetic nervous system

immunological
-immunosupression
-inflamation ( increase proinflamatory)

18

HPA axis senses

Stress

19

What causes adrenal resistance and elevated cortisol

Stress
poor nutrition
psychological stress
chronic inflamation

20

Symptoms of high cortisol

-increase Blood sugar
-increase BP
-insomnia
-lowered immune function

-usually when cortisol is activated it blocks insulin so more gucose is available for stressfull times but when it is activated at all times it causes probs

21

Exercise mechanisms for lowering stress

-decreases cortisol (HPA axis)
-decreases NFKb--> increases AKT/Mtor pathway
-Increases monoamines--> increase dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin

22

exercise effects on myokines

exercise increases acute levels of IL6 which inhibits pro inflammatory cytokines

23

Neurogenesis factors w exercise

-increase BDNF
-increase IGF1
-increase adiponection
-increase GABA/Serotonin
-Increase l trypotaphan which is converted to B# the serotonin
-decrease ROS