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Flashcards in CAP and prin. Deck (32):
1

What antibody is found as a dimer in breast milk, saliva and tears?

IgA

2

What antibody is pentermeric?

IgM

3

What bacteria causes diarrhoea, has a low infecting dose and is the main cause of kidney failure in children?

Ecoli 0157

4

What test would we do in a 55 year old with anaemia, weight loss and early satiety?

Gastroscopy.

5

If asked to differentiate between mild and moderate CAP what would be use?

The CURB score criteria e.g. Respiratory rate and urea.

6

What test would we do in an 82 year old with iron deficiency anaemia, altered bowel habit and severe arthritis?

CT colonography.

7

What does a gram positive cell wall look like?

It has a thick wall of peptoglycan.

8

What is FIFO- atpase and what does it do?

Protein component of the inner membrane that transfers energy associated with the proton motive face into high energy phosphate bonds found in ATP.

9

What kind of bacteria and streptococcus and staphylococcus?
How can we differentiate between them?

Gram +ve cocci.
Strep classified by haemolysis.

10

What do we test for for long term control of diabetes?

HbA1C.
It is glycated (joined with sugar - Hb)
Can show what blood sugar has been like over weeks or months.

11

How do we test for the likelihood of neuropathy in a diabetic?

Examination of foot sensation with 10g monofilament.

12

What is lactic acid a substrate for?

Glucogenesis?

13

What is the classic presentation of achalasia?

Unable to perform endoscopy because gullet full of food. One fasted a barium swallow shows dilated oesophagus and bird beak appearance of the GOJ.

14

What is the management of achalasia?

Hellers cardiomyotomy.

15

What direction is DNA synthesised in?

5-3

16

How is some O2 transported in the blood?

Dissolved in the serum.

17

What shape of molecule is Hb?

A tetramer.

18

What substance acts on the muscarininc end plate receptor on airway smooth muscle to mediate constriction?

Acetylcholine.

19

What substance acts on membrane bound beta 2 adrenoreceptors on airway smooth muscle to mediate relaxation?

Adrenaline.

20

What is the most common colorectal cancer?

Adenocarcinoma.

21

What is a metabolite of the arachadonic acid pathway released from eosinophils and mast cells which mediates airway smooth muscle constriction, increased vascular permeability and increased mucus production?

Leukotrine D4

22

What is the best test for pancreatic function?

Faecal elastase.

23

What can be seen with chronic pancreatitis on Xray?

Central abdominal calcification.

24

What is steatorrhea?
What causes it and what does it look like?

Excess lipids in the stool, causing pale floating stools that are difficult to flush.
Caused by intestinal malabsorption.

25

How can we diagnose coeliac and giardia?

OGD and D2 biopsy.

26

What is giardia?

Parasite causing diarrhoea.

27

What can cause bacterial overgrowth in the bowel and what test can we do for it?

Systemic sclerosis and other things causing bowel stasis.
Can do a glycocholic breath test.

28

What do we use if we need to reverse warfarin quickly?

Prothrombin complex concentrate.

29

What is the best treatment to use when patients need multiple clotting factors e.g. In chronic liver disease?

FFP.

30

What causes chicken pox and what does it infect?

Varicella zostervirus.
Skin and T cells.

31

What is the presentation of chicken pox?

Mouth lesions, blisters and lesions on the back of the scalp.

32

What is the most abundant antibody in the blood?

IgG