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Flashcards in Random Deck (21):
0

What is rhinitis?

Acute, chronic inflammation of nasal mucosa with rhinorrhoea, sneezing, itching and nasal congestion. May be allergic, non-allergic or mixed.

1

What are two types of allergic rhinitis?

SAR - seasonal
PAR - perennial
Both similar to allergic asthma.

2

What are some causes of non-allergic rhinitis?

Infection (usually viral), hormonal imbalance e.g. Pregnancy, casino toe disturbances, non allergic rhinitis and eosinophilia syndrome (NARES) and medications.

3

What does someone normally have when they have central burning chest pain when they cough?

Tracheitis.

4

How do we check for prostate cancer?

Prostate serum antigen test.

5

What is CA125?

Ovarian cancer protein.

6

What is CEA and what do we use it for?

Carcinoenbryonic antigen. It I done to see how well treatment is working.

7

What kind of pain can peritonitis cause on examination?

Rebound tenderness.

8

What typically will an African person presenting with respiratory issues have (in exams)?

Sarcoidosis.

9

What does vindicate stand for?

Vascular
Infection
Neoplasm
Degenerative or deficient
Idiopathic
Congenital
Autoimmune or allergic
Trauma
Endocrine.

10

What percentage of gall stones are radio opaque and why?

15%
Due to calcium content.

11

Why are small bowel obstruction patients at risk for dehydration?

Fluid cannot reach the large intestine to be re-absorbed.

12

What non GI issue should we always look out for on X-ray in case we miss it?

AAA

13

How does a perforated bowel heal itself?

The momentum covers it and allows healing.

14

What kind of xray do we do to check for a bowel perf?

An upright Xray. To allow gas to rise.

15

What level should lactate normally be?

0.7 - 2.1 mmol/L

16

Why is lactate produced?

By anaerobic respiration due to hypoxia.

17

What is chromoendoscopy?

Use lugols iodine to see Barretts.

18

What is Malory Weiss syndrome?

Characterised by upper GI bleeding.
Caused by tears in the mucosa usually at the gastro oesophageal junction or the gastric cardia.

19

What is the maximum and ideal cold ischaemia times for kidney transplants?

60 hours but ideally under 24.

20

What is the cold ischaemia time for a corneal transplant?

96 hours but longer with cryopreservation.