Carbohydrate structure and function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Carbohydrate structure and function Deck (74)
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1

Basic unit of carbohydrates

Monosaccharides

2

Suffix for carbohydrates with 3 carbon chain

Triose

3

3 carbon carbohydrate with an aldehyde

Aldotriose

4

3 carbon carbohydrate with a ketone

Ketotriose

5

Which carbon is able to participate in glycosidic linkages?

Aldehyde carbon

6

Purpose of glycosidic linkages

Allow sugars to act as substituents

7

All carbons, except the aldehyde or ketone, have what functional groups in a carbohydrate?

-OH or hydroxyl groups

8

D-fructose

CH2OH
|
C=O
|
OH-----C------H
|
H--------C-----OH
|
H--------C-----OH
|
CH2OH

9

D-glucose

CHO
|
H-----C------OH
|
HO-----C-----H
|
H--------C-----OH
|
H--------C-----OH
|
CH2OH

10

D-galactose

CHO
|
H-----C------OH
|
HO-----C-----H
|
HO-----C-----H
|
H--------C-----OH
|
CH2OH

11

D-mannose

CHO
|
HO-----C-----H
|
HO-----C-----H
|
H--------C-----OH
|
H-----C------OH
|
CH2OH

12

Optical Isomer/Stereoisomers

Same chemical formula but differ in spatial arrangements

13

Enantiomers

Stereoisomers that are nonidentical nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other. They have no internal plane of symmetry.
Same sugars in different optical families

14

Absolute configurations

D or L

15

Number of stereoisomers

2^n where n is number of chiral carbons

16

(+) rotation

Rotate light to right

17

(-) rotation

Rotate light to left

18

Fischer projection line meanings

Horizontal lines are coming out of page towards you and vertical lines are into page or away from you

19

How to determine D or L?

The placement of -OH on the highest number carbon determines D (right) or L (left)

20

Diastereomers

2 sugars that are both aldoses or ketoses and have the same # carbons but not identical and not mirror images

21

Epimers

Diastereomers differing at only one chiral center

22

Hydroxyl group

Nucelophile

23

Carbonyl

Electrophile

24

Cyclic hemiacetals form from

aldoses

25

Cyclic hemiketals form from

Ketoses

26

Pyranose

6-membered rings

27

Furanose

5-member rings

28

Anomeric carbon

Carbonyl carbon becomes chiral in cyclic form

29

α-anomer

-OH and -CH2OH are trans to each other

30

β-anomer

-OH and -CH2OH are cis to each other