Lipid Structure and Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lipid Structure and Function Deck (38)
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1

Amphipathic

Hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions

2

Phospholipid polar and nonpolar parts

Polar head is the phosphate and alcohol and it is attached to hydrophobic fatty acids by phosphodiester bonds

3

Saturated fatty acid

Has no pi bonds and is stable and solid at room temperature

4

Unsaturated fatty acid

Has pi bond(s) which result in kinks and make it a liquid at room temperature

5

Glycerophospholipid

-Has glycerol backbone
-Ester linkages to two fatty acids (can vary in length) and phosphodiester links to highly polar group which determines chemistry

6

Sphingolipids

-Have sphingolipid backbone

7

Glycolipid

Lipid linked to sugar

8

Ceramide

Sphingolipid with hydrogen atom at its head group

9

Sphingomyelins

-Sphingolipids
-Phosphotidylcholine or phosphotidylethanolamine
-no net charge
- major part of schwaan and oligodendrocytes' plasma membranes

10

Glycosphingolipids

Instead of phosphodiester bonds to polar groups, thers is glycosidic bonds to sugar groups

11

Cerebrosides

Sphingolipids attached to 1 sugar

12

Globosides

Sphingolipids attached to 2 or more sugars

13

Gangliosides

Glycolipids with NANA at end terminus and a negative charge

14

Waxes

Esters of long-chain fatty acids with long-chain alcohols, solid at room temp, prevent evaporation and dehydration

15

Terpenes

Precursors to lipid signaling molecules; built from isoprene C5H8
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16

Monoterpene

C10H16
has two isoprene units

17

Sesquiterpene

3 isoprene units
C15H24

18

Terpenoids/isoprenoids

Oxidized or rearranged terpenes and modified with a functional group
- Aromatic

19

Diterpenoid

Has 4 isoprene units

20

Steroids

Have 4 cycloalkane rings: 3 cyclohexane and 1 cyclopentane
-Oxidized states and functional groups vary

21

Steroid hormones

Hormones that are steroids

22

Cholesterol

-Amphipathic and in phospholipid bilayer
-Low temp => prevents soldification
- High temp => keeps membrane intact
-precursor to other molecules

23

Prostaglandins

-Para- or autocrine signaling molecules
-regulate cAMP
-Effects on smooth muscle function, sleep/wake cycle, and body temperature

24

Vitamin

Essential nutrient

25

Vitamin A/Carotene

-Retinal is component of light sensor in eye
-Retinol stores vitamin A and is oxidized to retinoic acid to regulate gene expression during epithelial development

26

Retinal

Component of light sensor in eye

27

Retinol

Stores vitamin A

28

Retinoic acid

Oxidized form of retinol and regulates gene expression of epithelial development

29

Vitamin D/cholecalciferol

It is turned into calcitriol by the liver and kidneys which in turn upregulates calcium and phosphate uptake to promote bone production

30

Rickets

Lack vitamin D and leads to underdeveloped bones and impeded growth