Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

Gr 12 Biology > Carbohydrates > Flashcards

Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (19):
1

What is the function of carbohydrates?

Short and long term energy storage

Provide structural support

Surface markers on cell for cell communication

2

What are the 3 types of carbs (CHO)

Simple sugars hydrocarbon chain

Carbonyl

Aldehyde or ketone

3

What are the types of sugars

Monosaccharides

Disaccharides

Oligiosaccharides

Polysaccharides

4

What is a monosaccharide

1 sugar molecule

1 carbon: 2 hydrogen: 1 oxygen

Used as quick energy

Dry state: linear chain

Wet state (dissolved): ring

5

What are examples of monosaccharides

Glucose, lactose, fructose, ribose

6

Glucose is an important monosaccharide, what is it made of and what are the different structures?

Hexose (6 carbon): C6H12O6

Alpha glucose: OH bonded on the bottom of carbon 1

Beta glucose: OH bonded on the top of carbon 1

7

Explain D- and L- glucose

D- and L- glucose are mirror images (just like left and right hands, not left and left hands)

D- is essential for living things

8

Characteristics of monosaccharides

Highly soluble in water

Taste sweet

As # of monos increase in the chain, the less sweet it will taste

9

Differences between alpha and beta bonds

Alpha bonds are easily broken down, • - - - •


Beta bonds are not broken down easily and often times cannot be broken down

• - - •
l _ l

10

What are disaccharides

2 sugar units

Subunits attached by GLYCOSIDIC LINKAGES

made by condensation reaction

11

What are oligiosaccharides and where are they found

3-9 units long

Found on the plasma membrane, aids with cell communication

12

What is a polysaccharide

Complex sugars
Made of 10 or more monosaccharides

Consists of many simple sugars (100’s to 1000’s)

13

What is the function of polysaccharides

Very polar, hydrophilic but too big to dissolve (paper towels)

In plants and animals for long term energy and structural support

14

What are examples of polysaccharides

Glycogen, starch, cellulose, chitin

15

What is glycogen

In animals for energy storage
a1-4 glycosidic linkages and a1-6 linkages

16

What is starch

Two types
Amylose: unbranched with 1-4 linkages (20%)

Amylopectin: branched with 1-6 linkages (80%)

17

What is cellulose

Used in plants for structural support (cell walls)

Alternating alpha and beta 1-4 glycosidic linkages, therefor indigestible and no energy received

18

What is chitin

Hard outer shell for insects, crustations

Used in fungi for structural support

Beta linkages = can’t be broken down, good for support

19

Monosaccharides are used as

Quick energy