Lipids Flashcards Preview

Gr 12 Biology > Lipids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lipids Deck (15):
1

What are the functions of lipids

Long term energy storage

Insulation

Protection of internal organs

Chemical signals (hormones)

Cellular membranes

2

What is the structure of lipids

Primary structure of all lipids is a hydrocarbon chain (C, H, and smaller amounts of O)

May contain functional groups (OH, C=O, COOH)

3

Scientific name for fats (not lipids) and the structure

Triglycerides

Same general structure: glycerol backbone, and three fatty acid chains

4

What is glycerol

Three carbon chain with three hydroxyl groups

Can bond with three fatty acid chains (called ester linkage)

One fatty acid chain binding at each hydroxyl group

5

What are fatty acid chains

Hydrocarbon chains that can be long/short and saturated/unsaturated

Each fatty acid chain has a non polar carboxyl group (COOH)

6

What are saturated fatty acids including examples

Do not contain double bonds

Straight (easily stacked)

Solid at room temp

Ex. coconut oil: not bad because medium chain triglycerides= easily broken down

Animal fats , butter

7

What are unsaturated fatty acids including examples

Contain double bonds ( one or more double bonded carbon)

Crooked

Liquid at room temp

Ex. Plant oils

8

Why does the double bond matter for the function of omegas

Where double bond is b/w 3 and 4 = omega 3 fatty acid

Where double bond is b/w 6 and 7= omega 6 fatty acid

9

Trans fats are ____ for our health but taste ______ because ...

Bad

Good

The hydrogen on the double bonded carbon are on opposite sides , structure= function

10

What reaction occurs when glycerol and fatty acids become triglycerides

Condensation reaction

11

What is the structure of a phospholipid

A glycerol backbone, a phosphate group, a nitrogen group, and two fatty acid chains

12

Phospholipids are divided into what

Two sections: the head and the tail

Head: polar consisting of glycerol backbone, phosphate group, nitrogen group

Tail: fatty acid chains, hydrophobic

13

The phospholipid cell membrane is made out of what

A phospholipid bilayer where water and other polar/ionic substances cannot pass through

14

Steroids are

Hydrophobic (non polar) molecules containing hydrocarbon rings and functional groups

Ex testosterone and estrogen

15

Waxed are formed via

A condensation reaction b/w a long chain fatty acid (carboxyl) and a long chain alcohol (hydroxyl)

Are hydrophobic

Ex cutin on plants controls how much water gets into the plant