Carbohydrates And Lipids Flashcards Preview

Human Biology > Carbohydrates And Lipids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Carbohydrates And Lipids Deck (17)
Loading flashcards...

What is the main function of all carbohydrates in humans?

Carbohydrates are used as a source of energy or for energy storage


Pentose sugars

building blocks for Ribose (RNA) and deoxyribose (DNA)


Describe the chemical structure of a carbohydrate

Largely hydrophilic organic molecules composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen monosaccharide and disaccharide sugars and starches are the carbohydrates


What does a monosaccharide do

It is used to build complex molecules hexosugars and provides energy one example is gluctose


What does a disaccharide do

Covalent joined monosaccharide glycosidic linkage example sucrose


What does a polysaccharide do

Polymers chains of glycosidic linkage depending on angles example glycogen


Are Carbohydrates mainly hydrophilic are mainly hydrophobic

Mainly hydrophilic due to their numerous hydroxyl groups


Polysaccharides do not dissolve dissolve well In water, what else might account for the fact that starch really only dissolves well at higher temps and/or with larger volumes of water

Given the size of the polysaccharide may take more to dissolve they store energy


Lipids are structurally and functionally diverse so what is the defining feature of lipids as a group

Organic molecules composed of mainly carbon and hydrogen hydrophobic and are polymers


What is a fatty acid

Fatty acids have a large tail of carbon hydrogen chain bound to a carboxyl group with Glycerol


Saturated fatty acid

Carbons are bound to the maximum amount of hydrogen they have a straight tail and can't take anymore hydrogen


Unsaturated fatty acid

Has more carbons than hydrogen kinked tail double bonding to 2 or more polymers


Trans-fatty acid

Unsaturated fat that acts like a saturated fat


What is a triglyceride

Glycerol covalent bond with three fatty acid chains used of storing and transporting fatty acid


What is a phospholipid describe the structure and explain why it is important

These molecules are amphipathic lipids clearly hydrophilic opposite hydrophobic region. Heads Face water tails are inwards. Lipids are used for building cell membranes.


Describe steroids and list some ways in which they are used within the body

Used to stabilize membranes as signal molecules and in lipid digestion all steroids have the hexagon structure mainly hydrophobic


What does glycolipids glycoproteins and lipoproteins do

Store energy and transport lipids