Digestion System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Digestion System Deck (34):
0

What is a calorie

The measure of heat output of an organism or the energy value in food

1

Essential amino acid

Can only be supplied in diet

2

Ketone body

Intermediate in metabolism of fatty acids

3

Lipoprotein

Particle containing lipids and proteins that make it water soluble for transport in blood

4

Glycogen

A highly branched polymer of glucose containing thousands of sub units provides storage of glucose

5

Low density lipoprotein

Plasma protein that is the main carrier of cholesterol in blood

6

High density lipoprotein

A blood constituent involved in the transport of cholesterol. Decrease risk of atherosclerosis and heart attack

7

Non essential amino acid

Alpha- amino acid that is requires for protein synthesis and can be synthesized by humans

8

What are the six main digestive processes?

Ingestion
Mechanical digestion
Absorption
Propulsion
Chemical digestion
Defecation

9

What is ingestion

Process of taking foods an liquids into the mouth (eating)

10

What is propulsion

Alternating contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle in the walls of GI tract Mixes food and secretions.

11

Mechanical digestion

Teeth cut and grind good before it is swallowed, smooth muscles of stomach and small intestine further assist

12

Absorption

The entrance of ingested and secreted fluids, ions, and small molecules that are products of digestion into the epitheral cells lining GI tract

13

What is chemical digestion

Large carbs, lipids, protein, and nucleic acid molecules in good are broken down into smaller molecules by digestive enzymes

14

What is defecation

Waste that is indigestible substances, bacteria, cells shed from the lining of GI tract and digested material that were not absorbed

15

List the organs found in the alimentary canal

Mouth - Pharynx - Espohagus - Stomach - Duodenum - Jejunum - Ileum - Cecum - Ascending Colon - Transverse Colon - Descending Colon - Sigmoid Colon - Rectum - Anus.

16

What is the role of salivary amylase in digestion

Digestive enzyme that begins the digestion of starches in the mouth

17

What is the role of pepsinogen/pepsin in the digestion

Protein digesting enzyme secreted by chief cells of the stomach in the in active form pepsinogen, which is converted to active pepsin by hydrochloric acid, degrades food proteins into peptides

18

What is the role of intrinsic factor in digestion

Absorbs vitamin B12

19

What does pancreatic amylase do in digestion

Enzyme that digest starches

20

What is the role of pancreatic lipase

is the primary triglyceride digesting enzyme that breaks down dietary fat molecules

21

What is trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase role in digestion

Proteins in pancreatic juice that breaks down starch

22

What does enterokinase do in the digestion system

Enzyme that activates the inactive form of trypsin. In turn trypsin activates the other protein digesting enzymes

23

What is the role of bile in digestion

Helps with emulsification, the breakdown of large lipid globules into a suspension of small liquid globules and in absorption of lipids

24

What is disaccharidases (sucrose,maltase,lactase) role in digestion

Maltose - splits maltose into two molecules of glucose
Sucrose - breaks sucrose into a molecule if glucose and fructose
Lactose - digests lactose into a molecule of glucose and galactose

25

Three structural features of the small intestines increase intestinal surface area for absorption. describe how circular folds increase surface area

Permanent ridges of the mucosa and submucosa that enhance absorption by increasing surface area and causing the chyme to spiral

26

Three structural features of the small intestines increase intestinal surface area for absorption. Describe what villi does to increase surface area.

Tufts of hair fingerlike projections of the mucosa that increases surface area of the intestinal epithelium

27

Three structural features of the small intestines increase intestinal surface area for absorption. Describe what microvilli do to increase surface area.

Tiny projections of the plasma membrane of absorption cells increase surface area of the Cells

28

What are minerals

Inorganic element that is most heavily in the Skelton. Helps regulate enzymatic reactions.

29

What are vitamins

Organic nutrients required in small amounts to maintain growth and normal metabolism. They serve as coenzymes and must be ingested

30

What is basal metabolic rate BMR

Measurement of calories needed based on factors that affect metabolism rate with the body in a quiet resting and fasting condition called the basal state.

31

What are glyconeogenesis

Liver cells convert the glycerol part of triglycerides lactic acid, and certain amino acids to glucose. The series of reactions that for glucose.

32

What is lipolysis

Triglycerides are split into glycerol and fatty acids

33

What is deamination

Removing the amino group, occurs in liver cells and produces ammonia