Flashcards in Digestion System Deck (34):
What is a calorie
The measure of heat output of an organism or the energy value in food
Essential amino acid
Can only be supplied in diet
Intermediate in metabolism of fatty acids
Particle containing lipids and proteins that make it water soluble for transport in blood
A highly branched polymer of glucose containing thousands of sub units provides storage of glucose
Low density lipoprotein
Plasma protein that is the main carrier of cholesterol in blood
High density lipoprotein
A blood constituent involved in the transport of cholesterol. Decrease risk of atherosclerosis and heart attack
Non essential amino acid
Alpha- amino acid that is requires for protein synthesis and can be synthesized by humans
What are the six main digestive processes?
What is ingestion
Process of taking foods an liquids into the mouth (eating)
What is propulsion
Alternating contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle in the walls of GI tract Mixes food and secretions.
Teeth cut and grind good before it is swallowed, smooth muscles of stomach and small intestine further assist
The entrance of ingested and secreted fluids, ions, and small molecules that are products of digestion into the epitheral cells lining GI tract
What is chemical digestion
Large carbs, lipids, protein, and nucleic acid molecules in good are broken down into smaller molecules by digestive enzymes
What is defecation
Waste that is indigestible substances, bacteria, cells shed from the lining of GI tract and digested material that were not absorbed
List the organs found in the alimentary canal
Mouth - Pharynx - Espohagus - Stomach - Duodenum - Jejunum - Ileum - Cecum - Ascending Colon - Transverse Colon - Descending Colon - Sigmoid Colon - Rectum - Anus.
What is the role of salivary amylase in digestion
Digestive enzyme that begins the digestion of starches in the mouth
What is the role of pepsinogen/pepsin in the digestion
Protein digesting enzyme secreted by chief cells of the stomach in the in active form pepsinogen, which is converted to active pepsin by hydrochloric acid, degrades food proteins into peptides
What is the role of intrinsic factor in digestion
Absorbs vitamin B12
What does pancreatic amylase do in digestion
Enzyme that digest starches
What is the role of pancreatic lipase
is the primary triglyceride digesting enzyme that breaks down dietary fat molecules
What is trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase role in digestion
Proteins in pancreatic juice that breaks down starch
What does enterokinase do in the digestion system
Enzyme that activates the inactive form of trypsin. In turn trypsin activates the other protein digesting enzymes
What is the role of bile in digestion
Helps with emulsification, the breakdown of large lipid globules into a suspension of small liquid globules and in absorption of lipids
What is disaccharidases (sucrose,maltase,lactase) role in digestion
Maltose - splits maltose into two molecules of glucose
Sucrose - breaks sucrose into a molecule if glucose and fructose
Lactose - digests lactose into a molecule of glucose and galactose
Three structural features of the small intestines increase intestinal surface area for absorption. describe how circular folds increase surface area
Permanent ridges of the mucosa and submucosa that enhance absorption by increasing surface area and causing the chyme to spiral
Three structural features of the small intestines increase intestinal surface area for absorption. Describe what villi does to increase surface area.
Tufts of hair fingerlike projections of the mucosa that increases surface area of the intestinal epithelium
Three structural features of the small intestines increase intestinal surface area for absorption. Describe what microvilli do to increase surface area.
Tiny projections of the plasma membrane of absorption cells increase surface area of the Cells
What are minerals
Inorganic element that is most heavily in the Skelton. Helps regulate enzymatic reactions.
What are vitamins
Organic nutrients required in small amounts to maintain growth and normal metabolism. They serve as coenzymes and must be ingested
What is basal metabolic rate BMR
Measurement of calories needed based on factors that affect metabolism rate with the body in a quiet resting and fasting condition called the basal state.
What are glyconeogenesis
Liver cells convert the glycerol part of triglycerides lactic acid, and certain amino acids to glucose. The series of reactions that for glucose.
What is lipolysis
Triglycerides are split into glycerol and fatty acids