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Flashcards in Cardiac anatomy Deck (24):

From which angle is the RA best viewed?

From the front


Which chamber makes up almost all of the posterior surface of the heart?

The left atrium


What are the musculi pectinati?

Raised horizontal ridges of muscle which are found on the walls of part of the interior of the right atrium


What is the junction between the rough and smooth part of the atrial wall called? What is the ridge sometimes found on the outside of the heart which corresponds to this called?

Crista terminalis

Sulcus terminalis


Which veins drain into the right atrium?

SVC, IVC, coronary sinus


Where does the coronary sinus open into the right atrium?

Near the septal cusp of the tricuspid valve


What is the shape of the RV?

The RV is cresentic in shape as the thicker muscle bulk of the LV causes the interventricular septum to bulge into the RV


What are the muscular ridges lining the wall of the RV called?

Trabeculae carnae


What are the cordae tendineae?

Delicate fibrous strands which tether the edges of the cusps of the tricuspid/mitral valves to the ventricular wall


What do the cordae tendiniae attach to?

Anterior, posterior and (in the case of the RV) septal papillary muscles


What name is given to the smooth part of the LV?

The infundibulum. The LV wall becomes smooth as it approaches the pulmonary trunk


Can the left atrium be seen from the front of the heart?

Only the left auricular appedage can be seen from the front. The rest of the LA is hidden and is best seen from behind.


What is meant by the fibrous skeleton of the heart?

Each of the four heart valves is surrounded by a fibrous ring. These rings are continuous with each other. They not only form the basis for the attachment of their corresponding valve cusps but also form an electrical barrier between the atrial and ventricular muscle. Electrical impulses can spread through the heart muscle but not through the fibrous skeleton


Where is the superficial cardiac plexus located?

Beneath the arch of the aorta


Where is the deep cardiac plexus located?

In front of the bifurcation of the trachea


Describe the sympathetic innervation of the heart

The sympathetic fibres to the heart arise in the upper four thoracic segments T1-T4. From here they pass to the segmental ganglia in the sympathetic trunk and either synapse at this level or ascend to one of the cervical sympathetic ganglia and synapse there. Post ganglionic sympathetic fibres therefore converge on the cardiac plexuses both directly from the upper four thoracic ganglia of the sympathetic trunk, and from the neck via cardiac branches from the cervical sympathetic ganglia. These nerve fibres pass through the cardiac plexuses and on to the SA node.


Where do sympathetic fibres innervating the heart synapse?

Sympathetic trunk or cervical sympathetic ganglia


Where do parasympathetic fibres innervating the heart synapse?

Cardiac plexuses or walls of the atria


Describe the parasympathetic innervation of the heart

Arises from the vagus nerve (CN X). Cardiac branches arise in the neck and then run down to the plexuses. They also arise from the recurrent laryngeal branch of the Vagus nerve and pass from here directly to the cardiac plexuses. Preganglionic parasympathetic synapse either in the plexuses or they pass through these and synpase in the walls of the atria


Which branch of the RCA supplies the RV wall?

The marginal branch


What parts of the heart are supplied by the RCA?

All of the right atrium and most of the right ventricle. Usually supplies the AV node


What is the largest branch of the RCA? Where does it run?

The posterior descending artery. It runs in the interventricular groove on the diaphragmatic surface of the heart towards the apex of the heart


What is the name of the groove between the atria and the ventricles which houses the coronary arteries?

The coronary sulcus


What are the terminal branches of the left coronary artery (or left main stem)

The left anterior descending artery and the circumflex artery