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Flashcards in Cardiogenic shock Deck (10):
1

What is cardiogenic shock?

A state of inadequate tissue perfusion primarily due to cardiac dysfunction. May occur suddenly or after progressively worsening heart failure

2

What are the causes of cardiogenic shock?

MI
Arrhythmias
Pulmonary embolism
Tension pneumothorax
Cardiac tamponade
Myocardiatis
Myocardial depression- drugs, hypoxia, acidosis, sepsis
Valve destruction (endocarditis)
Aortic dissection

3

How is cardiogenic shock managed?

1. Oxygen
2. Diamorphine
3. Investigations and close monitoring
4. Correct arrhythmias; U&E abnormalities or acid-base disturbance
5. Optimize filling pressure with clinical assessment of pulse, BP, JVP/CVP. If in ICU consider using PICCO or LIDCO
6a) If underfilled give a plasma expander- 100ml every 15minutes IV aiming for MAP 70mmHg and CVP 8-10mmHg
6b) If well/over filled, ionotropic support e.g. dobutamine aiming for MAP 70mmHg
7. Look for and treat any reversible cause MI or PE. Consider thrombolysis or surgery for acute VSD; mitral or aortic incompetence

4

What are PICCO and LIDCO?

PICCO= pulse contour cardiac output and LIDCO= lithium dilution cardiac output. Both use injection (PICCO= cold water; LIDCO= lithium) to estimate filling pressure, extravascular fluid i.e. pulmonary oedema and cardiac output.

5

What is cardiac tamponade?

An acute type of pericardial effusion in which fluid, pus, blood, clots, or gas accumulates in the pericardium resulting in slow or rapid compression of the heart. In essence: pericarial fluid collects, intra-pericardial pressure rises, heart cannot fill?, pumping stops

6

What are the causes of cardiac tamponade?

Trauma
Lung/breast cancer
Pericarditis
Myocardial infarct
Bacteria e.g. TB

7

What are the three main signs of cardiac tamponade? What are these known as?

Falling BP
Rising JVP
Muffled heart sounds

Beck's triad

8

What is Kussmaul's sign?

Raised JVP on inspiration

9

What is pulsus paradoxus?

Pulse fades on inspiration

10

How should cardiac tamponade be treated?

Prompt pericardiocentesis brings swift relief. While awaiting this giev oxygen, monitor ECG and set up IVI