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Flashcards in Cardiac pharmacology Deck (19):
1

How does aspirin work?

Irreversibly acetylates COX
COX is needed for the formation of thromboxane A2, which stimulates platelet activation
Inhibition of COX therefore reduces platelet aggregation, preventing arterial thrombus formation

2

How does clopidogrel work

Irreversibly inhibits ADP
ADP inhibits adenyl cyclase--> a decreased in cAMP and an increased in intracellular calcium
Increased calcium--> increased platelet aggregation
Used in combination with aspirin or in patients for whom aspirin is contraindicated

3

When is aspirin used?

For secondary prevention following MI, TIA/stroke, and for patients with angina or peripheral vascular disease
May be used for primary prevention in high risk patients

4

When is clopidogrel used in conjunction with/instead of aspirin?

Used in patients with high risk of GI bleeding who are unlikely to tolerate aspirin
Used with aspirin after coronary stent insertion and in acute coronary syndrome

5

Which B blocker is relatively B1 selective?

Bisoprolol

6

What are the effects of blocking B1 receptors

Negative ionotrophic and chronotropic effect

7

What are the effects of blocking B2 receptors

peripheral vasoconstriction; bronchoconstriction

8

In which patients are beta-blockers contraindicated?

Asthma/COPD
Heart block

9

What are some of the common side effects of beta-blockers?

Cold extremities
Fatigue
Bronchospasm
Bradycardia
Erectile dysfunction

10

What are beta blockers used for?

Angina
Hypertension
Antidysrhythmic
Post-MI (reduced mortality)
Heart failure (with caution)

11

What is furosemide? What is it used for?

Loop diuretic used to treat heart failure

12

How does furosemide work?

Inhibits resorbtion of NaCl in ascending loop of Henle causing diuresis

13

What are the side effects of furosemide?

Hyponatraemia
Hypotension
Hypokalaemia
Hypovolaemia/dehydration
Hypocalcaemia
Ototoxic (may cause deafness)

14

What is bendroflumethiazide? What it is used for?

Thiazide diuretic used in hypertension

15

How do the thiazide diuretics work?

Inhibit NaCl resorbtion in the distal tubule--> excretion of Na+ and Cl- with accompanying H2O

16

What are the side effects of thiazide diuretics?

Hypokalaemia
Hyper-uricaemia--> gout
Impaired glucose tolerance

17

In which patients are thiazide diuretics contra-indicated?

Patients taking digoxin (due to combined hypokalaemic effects)

Diabetic patients

18

What is amiloride?

A potassium sparing diuretic. Can cause hyperkalaemia and GI upset

19

What is spironalactone?

Potassium sparing diuretic