Cardiac Cycle Flashcards Preview

FHB Exam 1 - Cardiovascular Physiology > Cardiac Cycle > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiac Cycle Deck (16):
1

What precedes atrial systole?

P wave

2

When all valves are closed and ventricular volume is constant, what is the phase called?

Isovolumetric

3

Name the important components of Atrial Systole in the:

1. EKG
2. Aortic Pressure
3. Left Ventricular Pressure
4. Venous Pulse
5. Ventricular Volume
6. Ventricular Outflow
7. Heart sound??
8. Mitral valve (open or closed?)
9. Aortic Valve (open or closed?)

1. P wave before Atrial Systole (precedes)
2. decreasing Aortic Pressure
3. slight increase/almost constant Left Ventricular Pressure
4. A wave --> ATRIAL SYSTOLE
5. Ventricular VOLUME is constant
6. Ventricular OUTFLOW is constant
7. 4th heart sound!!! hypertrophy!!
8. Mitral Valve OPEN!!
9. Aortic Valve CLOSED

4

Are the 4th and 3rd heart sounds abnormal? What causes them? When do they occur?

YES!

1. 4th = hypertrophy of left ventricle
- occurs in late diastole --> ATRIAL SYSTOLE

2. occurs in Early Diastole - Rapid Ventricular Filling

3rd = rapid filling & emptying of ventricle --> normal in kids/pregnant women, not normal in adults
- mitral regurge
- HF
- dilated ventricles

5

Name the important components of ISOVOLUMETRIC CONTRACTION in the:

1. EKG
2. Aortic Pressure
3. Left Ventricular Pressure
4. Venous Pulse
5. Ventricular Volume
6. Ventricular Outflow
7. Heart sound??
8. Mitral valve (open or closed?)
9. Aortic Valve (open or closed?)

1. during the QRS(activation of ventricles)
2. Aortic Pressure drops slightly
3. L. Ventricular Pressure INCREASES
4. none
5. Ventricular Volume slight INCREASE
6. Ventricular outflow CONSTANT
7. 1st heart sound!! = closure of mitral valve
8. Mitral closed
9. Aortic Closed

-when ventricular pressure is GREATER than atrial pressure = MITRAL Valve closed - 1st sound

- ventricular pressure increases isovolumetrically due to ventricular contraction
- NO BLOOD LEAVES

6

Name the important components of SYSTOLE: Rapid Ventricular Ejection in the:

1. EKG
2. Aortic Pressure
3. Left Ventricular Pressure
4. Venous Pulse
5. Ventricular Volume
6. Ventricular Outflow
7. Heart sound??
8. Mitral valve (open or closed?)
9. Aortic Valve (open or closed?)

1. no EKG, beginning of T wave marks end of ventricular contraction & RAPID EJECTION

2. Aortic Pressure - INCREASES
3. L. Ventricular Pressure INCREASES
4. C wave -- ventricular contraction!!!bulging of tricuspid valve into right atrium during right ventricular contraction
5.Ventricular VOlume DECREASES
6. Ventricular Outflow INCREASES drastically
7. No heart sound
8. Mitral Valve CLOSED
9. Aortic Valve OPEN!!!!!!!!

7

When does the aortic valve open?

During Rapid Ejection!

8

Name the important components of SYSTOLE: Reduced Ventricular Ejection in the:

1. EKG
2. Aortic Pressure
3. Left Ventricular Pressure
4. Venous Pulse
5. Ventricular Volume
6. Ventricular Outflow
7. Heart sound??
8. Mitral valve (open or closed?)
9. Aortic Valve (open or closed?)

1. T wave!!!!
2. Aortic Pressure - DECREASED
3. Left Ventricular Pressure - DECREASED
4. Venous Pulse - X wave --> ventricular relaxation

- followed by V wave --> filling of ATRIUM
5. Ventricular Volume - DECREASING
6. Ventricular Outflow - DECREASING
7. Heart sound?? - NONE
8. Mitral valve (open or closed?) - CLOSED
9. Aortic Valve (open or closed?) - OPEN

9

Why is there reduced ejection?

Sarcomeres are not at optimal overlap--> too close together so steric hindrance occurs

10

Name the important components of Isovolumetric Relaxation in the:

1. EKG
2. Aortic Pressure
3. Left Ventricular Pressure
4. Venous Pulse
5. Ventricular Volume
6. Ventricular Outflow
7. Heart sound??
8. Mitral valve (open or closed?)
9. Aortic Valve (open or closed?)

1. EKG - END OF T wave - depolarization of ventricles complete

2. Aortic Pressure - DICROTIC NOTCH OCCURS --> occurs due to recoil of Aorta once the valve closes

3. Left Ventricular Pressure - DECREASING

4. Venous Pulse - rising V WAVE = rapid filling of atria

5. Ventricular Volume - constant

6. Ventricular Outflow - Constant

7. Heart sound?? - 2nd heart sound!!! = closing of Aortic Valve/Pulmonic Valve

8. Mitral valve (open or closed?) - CLOSED

9. Aortic Valve (open or closed?) - CLOSED

11

When does the dicrotic notch occur?

During Isovolumetric Relaxation - Aortic Valve closes

12

Name the important components of Diastole: Rapid Filling:

1. EKG
2. Aortic Pressure
3. Left Ventricular Pressure
4. Venous Pulse
5. Ventricular Volume
6. Ventricular Outflow
7. Heart sound??
8. Mitral valve (open or closed?)
9. Aortic Valve (open or closed?)

1. EKG- none

2. Aortic Pressure - decreasing

3. Left Ventricular Pressure - decreasing

4. Venous Pulse - FALL of V wave = EMPTYING of ATRIUM

5. Ventricular Volume -INCREASING

6. Ventricular Outflow - Constant ( not changing)

7. Heart sound?? - 3rd heart sound!!! = rapid flow of blood from atria into the ventricles
- abnormal in adults

8. Mitral valve (open or closed?) - OPEN

9. Aortic Valve (open or closed?) - CLOSED

13

Inspiration delays the closure of what valve?

Pulmonic

14

What valve delay can RBBB cause? LBBB?

1. Pulmonic Valve delay = Persistent Splitting
(increased with inspiration)

2. Paradoxical Splitting = Aortic Valve delay

(decreased with inspiration)

15

Name the important components of Diastole: Reduced Filling:

1. EKG
2. Aortic Pressure
3. Left Ventricular Pressure
4. Venous Pulse
5. Ventricular Volume
6. Ventricular Outflow
7. Heart sound??
8. Mitral valve (open or closed?)
9. Aortic Valve (open or closed?)

LONGEST PHASE
- ventricular filling occurs at a slower rate

1. None
2. Aortic Pressure - DECREASES
3. Left Ventricular Pressure - Constant
4. Venous Pulse - none
5. Ventricular Volume - CONSTANT (increased during rapid filling)

6. Ventricular Outflow - Constant = not changing

7. Heart sound?? - preceded by 3rd heart sound (rapid filling of ventricles)

8. Mitral valve (open or closed?) - OPEN

9. Aortic Valve (open or closed?) - CLOSED

16

Increasing HR decreases or increases filling time? End Diastolic Volume? Stroke Volume?

DECREASES filling time
- decreases EDV
- decreases Stroke Volume