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Flashcards in Cardio Drugs Deck (34):
1

Primary HTN can be treated with (4):

1. diuretics 2. ACE inhibitors 3. ARBs 4. calcium channel blockers

2

Treatment for HTN w/ CHF

1. diuretics 2. ACE inhibitors/ARBs 3. beta-blockers 4. aldosterone antagonists

3

Beta-blockers are contraindicated in...

cardiogenic shock.

4

HTN with diabetes mellitus should be treated with...

1. ACE inhibitors/ARBs 2. calcium channel blockers 3. diuretics 4. beta-blockers 5. alpha-blockers

5

IN DM, ACE inhibitors and ARBs are protective against...

diabetic nephropathy.

6

Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blockers

1. Amlodipine 2. Nimodipine 3. Nifedipine

7

Non-Dihydropyridine Caclium Channel Blockers

1. Diltiazem 2. Verapamil

8

Calcium Channel Blockers MOA

block voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels of cardiac and smooth muscle, thereby reducing muscle contractility

9

Calcium channel blockers that have the most effect on vessels are...

amlodipine and nifedipine

10

Calcium channel blockers that have the most effect on the heart are...

verapamil and diltiazem

11

Clinical use of Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers

-HTN -angina -raynaud

12

Clinical use of Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers

-HTN -angina -atrial fib/flutter

13

Nimodipine is used for...

subarachnoid hemorrhage to prevent cerebral vasospasm.

14

Toxicity of Calcium Channel Blockers

-cardiac depression -AV block -peripheral edema -flushing -dizziness -hyperprolactinemia -constipation

15

Hydralazine MOA

-increased cGMP leads to smooth muscle relaxation. It vasodilates arterioles the most leading to afterload reduction.

16

Clinical use of Hydralazine

-HTN, CHF -HTN in pregnancy (first-line with methyldopa) -frequently w/ beta-blockers to prevent reflex tachycardia

17

Toxicity of Hydralazine

-compensatory tachycardia -fluid retention -nausea -HA -angina -Lupus like syndrome

18

Commonly used drugs for hypertensive emergency are...

nitroprusside, nicardipine, clevidipine, labetalol, and fenoldopam.

19

Nitroprusside features

-increase cGMP via direct release of NO -can cause cyanide toxicity

20

Fenoldopam is a...

Dopamine D1 agonist that causes coronary, peripheral, renal and splanchnic vasodilation. Decreases BP and increases natriuresis.

21

MOA of Nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate

vasodilates by increased NO in vascular smooth muscle leading to increase in cGMP and smooth muscle relaxation. Dilates veins the most leading to decreased preload.

22

Clinical use of Nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate

-angina -acute coronary syndrome -pulmonary edema

23

Toxicity of Nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate

-reflex tachycardia -hypotension -flushing -headache

24

Cholestyramine, Colestipol, Colesevelam

bile acid resins

25

Ezetimibe

cholesterol absorption blocker

26

Gemfibrozil, Clofibrate, Bezafibrate, Fenofibrate

Fibrates

27

Digoxin is a...

cardiac glycoside.

28

MOA of Digoxin

direct inhibition of Na/K ATPase leads to indirect inhibition of Na/Ca exchanger. Increased Ca is positive inotropy which stimulates the vagus nerve and decreases HR.

29

Clinical use of Digoxin

CHF, a fib

30

Toxicity of Digoxin

-Cholinergic effects -increased PR, decreased QT, ST scooping, Twave inverion, AV block, arrhythmia

31

Antidote for Digoxin toxicity

-slowly normalize K -cardiac pacer -anti-digoxin Fab fragments -Mg

32

Adenosine is an antiarrhythmic that works by...

increasing extracellular potassium leading to hyperpolarization and decreased influx of calcium

33

Adenosine is the drug of choice for...

supraventricular tachycardia.

34

Mg2+ is used for...

torsades de pointes and digoxin toxicity.