Flashcards in Cardio Exam 2 Study Guide Deck (85)
Which labs are monitored in the client receiving heparin therapy?
aPTT, platelet counts.
Discuss possible food interactions while undergoing heparin therapy.
vegetables high in vitamin K
Why is Benadryl used in clients receiving a transfusion?
For mild allergies during or up to 24 hours after transfusion. Findings include itching, urticaria, and flushing.
List three nursing interventions for preventing venous stasis.
Elevate limb, wear pressure stockings, ROM. Rest.
List the signs and symptoms of folic acid deficiency.
pallor, progressive weakness and fatigue, SOB, glossitis, cheilosis, and diarrhea.
Discuss the function of erythrocytes, granulocytes, thrombocytes and lymphocytes.
Erythrocytes: Red Blood Cell's. Contain hemoglobin and these transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues.
Granulocytes: WBC with secretory granites in its cytoplasm. "basophil". Function is to fight off pathogens such as bacteria and fungi.
Thrombocytes: Platelets. Function is to stop bleeding by clumping and clotting blood vessel injuries.
Lymphocytes: WBC that function as part of the immune system. Properly respond to foreign invaders in the body.
State the normal range for neutrophils.
The percent of neutrophils consists of the segmented (fully mature) neutrophils) + the bands (almost mature neutrophils). The normal range for the ANC = 1.5 to 8.0 (1,500 to 8,000/mm3).
Describe the location of the mitral valve.
Between the Left Atrium and Left Ventricle
Define pernicious anemia.
Vitamin B12 deficiency. Lack of intrinsic factor.
Discuss the relationship of red blood cell count and blood viscosity.
RBCs contribute thickness (viscosity) to the blood.
List the risk factors for deep vein thrombosis.
Hip surgery, total knee arthroplasty, open prostate surgery (prolonged immobility)
Heart failure, immobility, pregnancy, contraceptives.
Discuss the teaching for the client discharged on iron preparations.
have hemoglobin checked q4-6 weeks.
vitamin C can increase oral absorption.
instruct to take supplements between meals to increase absorption.
list the effects of thrombolytic therapy
for the medication to dissolve a clot or clear blocked blood vessels
Describe the nursing interventions for suspected phlebitis at an IV site.
Monitor for: ven induration (hard), redness, pain or burning, discomfort, warmth, edema, red streaks, fever.
Observe site q2h, non tunneled catheters require intact sterile dressing. use smallest gauge needle in largest vein possible. clean site and change sites per facility protocol.
Discuss the expected lab findings for the client with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
low platelet count, low fibrinogen count
PT and PTT. decreased clotting factors V and VIII.
positive D-dimer test
peripheral blood smear shows schistocytes
Describe two important interventions for the client with decreasing blood pressure.
lie down, start IV, oxygen, administer vasopressin.
- drink more water
- semi fowlers position
- take medications to raise
- wear compression stockings
List an adverse effect of epoetin alfa (Epogen).
Raises blood pressure. Check often.
Discuss myocarditis, its treatment and prognosis.
Myocarditis is the inflammation of the heart's muscular walls.
Treatment includes: medication to regulate the heartbeat and improve heart function. Rare occasions will need a device such as a pacemaker.
Caused by a viral, fungal, or bacterial infection. Also Crohn's disease.
Discuss the care of the client following a vein ligation and stripping.
- maintain elastic bandages on the legs
- monitor groin and leg for bleeding through the bandages
- monitor extremity for edema, warmth, color, pulses
- elevate legs above the heart
- encourage client to perform ROM in legs
- review the client instruction to elevate the legs when sitting, and avoid dangling them over the side of the bed
CHECK DRESSING. PRESSURE DRESSING.
Discuss how the client with Raynaud's disease can prevent the onset of symptoms.
Keep warm, do not smoke, don't stress, avoid aggravating medications, exercise regularly.
Discuss the pathophysiology of sickle cell anemia.
HbS becomes crystalized when hypoxemia occurs --> rigid, elongated RBCs that form a sickle shape --> increase blood viscosity (thickness) and hemolysis of the cell --> accumulation in the smaller blood vessels and capillaries --> vessel obstruction --> tissue death
List the signs and symptoms of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)..
abnormal bleeding, petechiae, ecchymosis, epistaxis, hemoptysis, cyanosis: cold, mottled fingers and toes, severe muscle, back abdominal and chest pain, dyspnea, confusion, oliguria, shock
How should IV dextran be administered?
Parenteral iron supplement (iron dextran) are only given for severe anemia. Administer using the z-track method.
Administer doses of 2 mL or less, IV, once a day, until the calculated total amount required has been reached
How does heparin work in treating thrombophlebitis?
It works by preventing new clots and prevents enlargement of existing clots.
What is the greatest priority in the care of a client with varicose veins with edema and ulcerations.
Proper nutrition and proper wound healing
list the normal lab value ranges fro hematocrit, hemoglobin, RBC's and platelets
F: 12 - 16
M: 14 - 18
F: 37 - 47
M: 42 - 52
RBC: 5,000 - 10,000
Platelets: 150,000 - 400,000
Which lab test is used to confirm rheumatic endocarditis?
Blood cultures to detect bacterial infection
Throat culture to deter strep.
give the definition and example of cardiogenic shock
Condition when the heart suddenly can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
EXAMPLES: heart attack, myocarditis, endocarditis, arrhythmias.
Describe the priority assessment of the client with an arterial occlusion of the leg.
Assess for a negative homan's sign.