med 2052 Exam #2 - Immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in med 2052 Exam #2 - Immunity Deck (40)
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discuss the cells involved when the client has HIV

CD4 (helper) T Cells

T and B cells


discuss symptoms/treatments for AIDS

SYMPTOMS: chills, asymptomatic for 10 years, rash, anorexia, N/V, weight loss, weakness, fatigue, headache, sore throat, nigh sweats



discuss Karposi's sarcoma

painless purplish or brown skin lesions.

cancer that develops from the cells the line lymph or blood vessels. It usually appears at tumors on the skin or on mucosal surfaces such as inside the mouth. Can be life threatening in the lungs, liver, or digestive tract.


data collection for the client who is at risk for HIV

Those who have had unprotected sex (vaginal, anal, oral)

Multiple sex partners, occupational exposure, blood transfusion, IV drug use with contaminated needle


define HIV

Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a retrovirus that is transmitted through blood and body fluids (semen, vaginal secretions). HIV integrates its RNA into host cell DNA


discuss ways to prevent sexual transmission of HIV

Encourage the use of condoms

Encourage patient to avoid having multipole sex partners

Abstain from anal sex


discuss HAART for HIV clients

AKA Highly active antiretroviral therapy: includes 5 classes of drugs NRTI's, NNRTI's, Protease inhibitors, Entry inhibitors, and integrase inhibitors. Since each classification attacks different parts in the virus developmental cycle, using different drugs simultaneously is considered more effective in containing the virus and lowering overall viral load.


discuss cytomegalovirus (CMV)

One-celled parasitic infection of the gastrointestinal tract causing diarrhea, fever, and weight loss

Cytomegalovirus: Viral infection of the eyes, lungs, stomach; GI tract. Side effects: diarrhea, fever, and weight loss. Diagnostic tests: None Medications: antivirals slides (med) 3 Nursing considerations: hand hygiene, no crowds or sick people, no raw foods.


describe manifestations of pneumocystis jirveci (carinii) pneumonia

Fungal infection of the lungs. Side effects: Night sweats, Cough, fever, chest pain, sputum production. Diagnostic tests: X-ray, CBC with differential, bronchoscopy, culture Nursing considerations:


list the types of opportunistic infections observed in the AIDS client

An infection that occurs when the "host" has a weakened immune system; an infection that wouldn't typically happen in a healthy person.


manifestations of wasting syndrome

unwanted weight loss that is equal to more than 10% of a persons body weight. Weight loss can result in loss of both fat and muscle

S/S: weight loss, muscle loss, lack of appetite, fatigue, decreased strength.

tx: exercise, high protein diet, meds to improve and increase appetite such as dronabinol (Marionol)


transmission precautions for the AIDS clients/ ways HIV trasmitted

transmitted through blood and body fluids (semen, vaginal secretions).

one must wear gloves and proper PPI


important labs for the client taking ritonavir (Norvir)



pregnancy and HIV/AIDS



describe the HIV retrovirus

Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a retrovirus that is transmitted through blood and body fluids (semen, vaginal secretions). HIV integrates its RNA into host cell DNA


how do you know when the HIV client has AIDS

when CD4 count is less than 200 cells/mm3.

they get defining conditions


nursing diagnosis for the AIDS client



diagnostic tests for the HIV/AIDS

Positive antibody assays: ELISA (most common) - 2 positives

Plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load: viral load coincide with active viral replication


teaching fro the client treated with acyclovir (Zovirax) for genital herpes

may cause confusion, give meds with food, ensure client understand the drug isn't to cure the viral infection, but it reduces symptoms and they do not prevent the spread of viruses from one person to another


nursing considerations for client taking tetracycline

monitor client for N/V and diarrhea. monitor I&O. take on empty stomach, take with a full glass of water, avoid administering to children under age 8, avoid high IV doses, avoid prolonged exposure to sunlight use alternative birth control


superinfection and antibiotic therapy



most common use of sulfonamides

to treat UTI, acute otitis media, ulcerative colitis


adverse effects of sulfonamides

CRYSTALLURIA, PHOTOSENSITIVITY. n/v, anorexia, diarrhea, abdominal pain, stomatitis, chills, fever


discuss culture and sensitivity tests

culture is to determine was the germ is and sensitivity is to determine which medication is needed


discuss standard precautions

Standard precautions is washing hands before and after patient contact. No other special equipment or room is needed.


discuss care after an accidental needle stick

wash area with warm water and soap for 5-10 minutes. report to charge nurse and fill out any paperwork. get blood tests done.


discuss HIV encephalopathy

AIDS dementia complex (ADC). neurological disorder directly caused by HIV.

S/S: memory and concentration problems, diminished emotional and or intellectual response, marked behavioral changes, diminished strength, loss of motor skills, loss of fine motor skills, loss of mobility, dementia


psychosocial interventions fro the client diagnosed with AIDS



discuss peak and trough levels. give an example of a drug that requires this

Vancomyic and ahminoglycosides. samples for peak levels should be collected 30 minutes after administration of drug IM or IV. trough levels for the client should be collected prior to the next dose or one hour before IV infusion


adverse effects of aminoglycosides