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Internal Medicine Mnemonics > Cardiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiology Deck (25):
1

Most efficient extractor of oxygen from the blood

Heart

2

Intercellular junctions responsible for the cardiac syncytium

Gap Junctions

3

Substance that dilates upstream blood vessels

Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factor (EDRF) aka Nitric Oxide (NO)

4

Most potent vasoconstrictor

ADH (can increase levels of Endothelin-1)

5

An increase in venous return will increase the heart rate

Bainbridge Reflex

6

An increase in venous return will increase the stroke volume, Basis stretching of cardiac sarcomeres will increase contraction

Frank-Starling Mechanism

7

Hypertension, irreguar respiration and bradycardia due to activation of the CNS ischemc response and baroreceptor reflex in increased intracranial pressure

Cushing Reflex

8

Formua for Blood Pressure (BP) based on Ohm's Law

Blood Pressure = Cardiac Output x Total Peripheral Resistance (TPR) = (Heart Rate x Stroke Volume) x TPR TPR is synonymous with Systemic Vascular Resistance and increases when arterioles vasoconstricted

9

Norma pressure at various part of the adult circulation

Large arteries: <120/80mmHg, Systemic Cappillaries 17mmHg, Vene Cava: 0 mmHg, Pulmonary Artery: 25/8mmHg, Pulmonary capillaries: 7 mmHg

10

Abdominojugular Reflux

At least 10 second pressure over the upper abdomen (RUQ). Positive response: sustained rise of 3 cm in JVP for at least 10-15 seconds after release of the hands

11

Carvallo's sign

Pansystolic murmur of tricuspid regurgitation. Louder during inspiration and diminishes during forced expiration

12

Graham Steell Murmur

High-pitched, diatolic, decrescendo blowing murmur along the left sternal border due to dilation of the pulmonary valve ring; occurs in mitral valve disease and severe pulmonary hypertension

13

Gallavardin Effect

Condition where the murmur of aortic stenosis may be transmitted downward and to the apex and may be confused with the systolic murmur of mitral regurgitation

14

Broadbent's Sign

Apical pulse is reduced and may Retract insystole in constrictive pericarditis

15

Corrigan's Pulse

A rapidly rising "water-hammer" pulse that collapses suddenly as arterial pressure falls rapidly during late systole and diastole, seen in aortic regurgitation

16

Quincke's Puse

Cappillary pulsations manifest as alternate flushing and paling of the skin while pressure is applied to the tip of the nail, seen in aortic regurgitation

17

Traube's Sign

A booming "pistol-shot" sound heard over the femoral arteries, seen in aortic regurgitation

18

Duroziez Sign

To-and-fro murmur audible if the femoral artery is lightly compressed with a stethoscope, seen in aortic regurgitation

19

Major noninvasive marker of increased CV morbidity / mortality risk

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH)

20

cornerstone in the diagnosis if acute and chronic ischemic heart disease

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

21

ideal imaging modlity for cardiac emegencies

2D echocardiography

22

gold standard for imaging valve morphology and motion, detection of pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade, and assessment of LV cavity size, systolic function, and wall thickness

2D echocardiography

23

Gold standard for assessing LV mass & volumes

MRI

24

Imaging modalities of choice for the evaluation of suspected aortic aneurysm or aortic dissection, and in distinguishing between restrictive cardiomyopathy & constrictive pericarditites

CT scan and MRI

25

Gold standard in assessng the anatomy & physiology of the heart & associated vasculature

Cardia catheterization and coronary angiography